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SOCPSY 1Z03- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 24 pages long!)

24 pages127 viewsFall 2016

Department
Social Psychology
Course Code
SOCPSY 1Z03
Professor
Malanie Dani
Study Guide
Midterm

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McMaster
SOCPSY 1Z03
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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1Z03 - Dr Malanie Dani socpsy@mcmaster.ca
INTRODUCTION
Definition: The systematic study of the nature and causes of human social
behaviour.
interplay between the individual aspects and traits and social process (do/ be good or
bad?)
Sociology and Psychology
1. Individuals and groups. Relationship and structures.
2. stimuli and behaviour
theory: testable predictable
FIVE THEORIES
Theoretical Perspectives:
1. Role theory 行为和角色扮演息息相关: to change a person’s behaviour, it is
necessary to change or redefine his or her role.
1. People spend much of their lives in groups and organisation and occupy distinct
positions.
2. Role is a set of functions performed by the person for the group and the
expectations of the group is norms 规范.
3. Individuals usually perform according to the norms and the group will check
the performance to see if it conforms the norms.
4. Has difficulty to explain deviant behaviour and how role expectations
originate and change.
2. Reinforcement theory 行为更偏向讨喜的并抑制厌弃的: People are more likely to
perform a behaviour if it is followed by pleasurable or by the removal of
something aversive. People will refrain from a particular behaviour if it is
followed by something aversive or the removal of something pleasant.
1. Conditioning:
1. a relationship is established between emitting a response and
receiving a reinforcement.
2. If a person emits a particular response and this response is then
reinforced, the connection between response and reinforcement is
strengthened.
2. STIMULUS - Response
1. Any event that leads to and alteration in behaviour is called a stimulus
and the change in behaviour induced by a stimulus is called a
response.
2. A reinforcement is any favourable outcome that results from a
response.
3. Stimulus discrimination: when a person learns the exact conditions
under which a response will be reinforced.
3. Cannot easily explain altruism and martyrdom.
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3. Cognitive theory 人物内心活动影响行为 并受外界刺激及行为反应影响: The
mental activities (cognitive processes) of the individual, which include
perception, memory, judgement, problem solving, and decision making are
important determinants of social behaviour. An individual’s cognitive processes
intervene between external stimuli and behavioural responses.
1. Cognitive structure and schemas:
1. Cognitive structure refers to any type of organisation among cognitions
(concepts and beliefs).
2. Schemas: a cognitive structure that connect information together.
1. stereotypes is a consequence of schemas. (Group Schemas)
2. why schemas? fast and quick.
2. Cognitive Consistency:
1. Individuals strive to hold ideas that are consistent with one another
rather than ideas that are inconsistent or incongruous.
2. If a person holds several ideas that are incongruous or inconsistent,
then he/she will experience internal conflict.
3. Limitations:
1. simplifies the way people process information: and inherently complex
phenomenon.
2. Not directly observable. Must be inferred.
4. Symbolic interaction theory 行为建立在与他人的互动: Human nature and social
order are products of symbolic communication among people. A person’s
behaviour is constructed through a give and take during his or her interaction with
others.
1. Self occupies a central place
2. Individuals see themselves from the viewpoint of others
3. Care most about the opinions of significant others who control the position of
group
4. Limitation:
1. Overemphasizes rational, self-conscious thought and deemphasises
unconscious and emotional states.
2. Individuals are depicted as a specific personality type: Other-directed
that meeting others’ standard.
3. Too much emphasis on cooperation and neglect conflict.
5. Evolutionary theory 受基因影响并遗传: The behaviour is coded in gene and pass
through reproduction and characteristic would be more frequently through genetic
code
1. Circular reasoning: why did the behaviour begin at the first place?
2. Ignore the role of cultural and social factors
RESEARCH METHODS
Aggregated not Individuals. System: Elements are variables not Individuals.
Method for testing CASUAL relationship between phenomena
Variable: gender, age, income, etc.
Independent Variable: has an effect on other variable
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