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SOCPSY 1Z03 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Genie (Feral Child), Social Learning Theory, Anti-Social Behaviour

20 pages86 viewsFall 2015

Department
Social Psychology
Course Code
SOCPSY 1Z03
Professor
Dr.Gavin
Study Guide
Midterm

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-Intro to Social Psychology
What is Social Psychology
-Formal Definition: “The systematic study of the nature and causes of human social behaviour” (Delamater)
Causes: generally based on individual (dispostional/ Character)
Internal factors, genetic reasons, “hardwired”
Product of the individual and social behaviour
-Explain social behaviour with internal factors (ie: aggression… social situation will be the leading cause of the situation
-Social Psychologist argue against only personal reasons… argue use of situational factors
-Stanley Milgram’s obedience to authority experiments: Interested in world war 2… awful acts commented in Germany
Wanted to answer questions: Whether or not a person be instructed to do something bad to person B
Individual explanation… found out more than 5% of people (about 1/2)
By changing small parameters of the experiments … you could change the stats of the survey —> the social situation shows
(matters the most)
-Key ideas to take away from his course:
Social psychologist are skeptical of personal experience as a means to understanding human social behaviour (Deeply
problematic hence why we need to rely on systematic observation instead … without this will make mistakes)
Recognizing the “power of the situation” in human social behaviour
-Topics of Interest to social Psychologist
Socialization and social origins of the self
The social basis to perception and cognition
Social influence and persuasion
Conformity in groups
What causes aggressive versus altruistic behaviour?
social roles and individuals behaviours
-Social Psychology: Four Core Concerns:
The impact of one individual on anothers behaviour and beliefs
The impact of a group on a members behaviour and beliefs
The impact of a member on a groups activities and structure
The impact of one group and other groups’ activities and structures
-Sociology is the scientific of the development, structure and functioning of human society
Sociological Social Psychologists are interested in the relationship between individuals and groups and broader social
structures
-Psychology is the scientific study of the individual and of individual behaviour
Psychological Social Psychologist are concerned with individual behaviour and social stimuli
-Social Psychology: A Social Science
Social psychologist examine human behaviour and the social world by following a scientific method
They make systematic observations of behaviour and formulate theories that are subject
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Science: “… a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions
about the universe”
The Scientific method versus: Personal experience, commonsensical knowledge, philosophy
-What is a Theory?
“A set of interrelated propositions that organize and explains observed phenomena” Delamater & Myers
-Relies in large part on theory
It goes beyond mere observable facts by postulating casual relations among variables
-Theory is a tentative explanation of how we think, we are not necessarily proven as a fact, but think that something may work
in a certain way
If a theory is valid, it enables its user to explain the phenomena under consideration and make predictions about events not yet
observed
-Idea is that we should be able to test/predict a theories result
Theories cannot have opinionated responses, must not operate on a value based judgement
None of these theories meet the requirements for being a proper prediction
-Theoretical Perspectives
General explanations for a wide array of social behaviours in a variety of situations
Provide a frame of reference for interpreting and comparing a wide range of social situations and behaviours
Theoretical Perspectives: Social psychology investigates the 5 following theoretical perspectives
-Role Theory
-Reinforcement theory
-Cognitive theory
-Symbolic interaction theory
-Evolutionary Theory
-Role Theory
Much of observable social behaviour is people carrying out their roles, similar to actors performing on a stage
According to role theory, to change a persons behaviour, it is necessary to change or redefine his or her role
Rides within sociology and social psychology
Looks at how people act/ behave from the role of society/ groups that we are (art of)
How our actions are affected or predicted
Most observable behaviour is from roles that are adopted by society
Propositions in Role Theory
-People spend much of their lives participating in groups and organizations
-Within these groups, people occupy distant positions
-Each o f these positions entails a role, which is set of functions performed by the person for the group
-Groups formalized these expectations as norms, which are rules specifying how a person should behave
-Individuals usually carry out their roles and perform according to the the norms
-Group members check each individuals performance to determine whether it conforms to the group norms
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-Idea that we social animals that participate in a social group
-Within the groups we follow a status quo/position
-We follow unwritten/written rules on how to behave accordingly
-Different roles have different expectations, but non the less are equally important, expectations can include; uniform,
language, associations
-Performing social norms that are informal indicators of how to act, we ten to know what they are and to follow them without
question
-Additional theory claims that explications on how to act in a give situation that predicts how we are to act or respond to a
situation
Limitations of Role Theory
-Role theory has difficulty explaining deviant behaviour, or any behaviour that violates the norms defining a given role
Deviant behaviour violates the females of roles
-Role theory does not and cannot explain how role expectations originate or how they change
-Roles have arguably changed dramatically i.e.: parenting, educators, etc.
-Reinforcement Theory
Central proposition
-People are more likely to preform a behaviour if it is followed by something pleasurable or by the removal of something
aversive
-People will refrain from a particular behaviour if it is followed by something aversive or the removal of something pleasant
-Second perspective that explain behaviour from a micro- focused level of an individual
-We are more likely to follow behaviours when they are positive results
Conditioning: A relationship is established between emitting a response and receiving a reinforcement
-If a person emits a particular response and this response is then reinforced, the connection between response and
reinforcement is strengthened
-How we tell people to act by falling with a positive outcome being reinforced, we are conditioning individuals act these ways
Stimulus — Response:
-Any event that leads to an alteration or change in behaviour is called a stimulus
-The change is behaviour induced by a stimulus is called a response
-Reinforcement is any favourable outcome that results from a response
-Stimulus discrimination occurs when a person learns the exact conditions under which a response will be reinforced
-Reinforcement may be positive/ negative
Limitations
-Reinforcement theory cannot easily explain altruism and martyrdom
-Behaviour is a result of eternal stimuli form a command and an outcome
- One problem that comes from this is that it frames people to only do things when there is a positive result to follow
-Cannot however explain all types of human behaviour and deviants
-Cognitive Theory
The mental activities (cognitive process) of an individual are important determinants of social behaviour
These cognitive processes include perception, memory, judgement, problem solving, decision making
An individual cognitive process intervene between external stimuli and behavioural responses
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