Study Guides (283,439)
CA (135,414)
McMaster (8,394)
SOCPSY (92)
Dr.Gavin (2)
Midterm

SOC PSY 1Z03 Midterm: Social Psychology Notes - Up to midterm

20 Pages
41 Views
Fall 2015

Department
Social Psychology
Course Code
SOCPSY 1Z03
Professor
Dr.Gavin
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 20 pages of the document.
Kam 1
-Intro to Social Psychology
What is Social Psychology
-Formal Definition: “The systematic study of the nature and causes of human social behaviour” (Delamater)
Causes: generally based on individual (dispostional/ Character)
Internal factors, genetic reasons, “hardwired”
Product of the individual and social behaviour
-Explain social behaviour with internal factors (ie: aggression… social situation will be the leading cause of the situation
-Social Psychologist argue against only personal reasons… argue use of situational factors
-Stanley Milgram’s obedience to authority experiments: Interested in world war 2… awful acts commented in Germany
Wanted to answer questions: Whether or not a person be instructed to do something bad to person B
Individual explanation… found out more than 5% of people (about 1/2)
By changing small parameters of the experiments … you could change the stats of the survey —> the social situation shows
(matters the most)
-Key ideas to take away from his course:
Social psychologist are skeptical of personal experience as a means to understanding human social behaviour (Deeply
problematic hence why we need to rely on systematic observation instead … without this will make mistakes)
Recognizing the “power of the situation” in human social behaviour
-Topics of Interest to social Psychologist
Socialization and social origins of the self
The social basis to perception and cognition
Social influence and persuasion
Conformity in groups
What causes aggressive versus altruistic behaviour?
social roles and individuals behaviours
-Social Psychology: Four Core Concerns:
The impact of one individual on anothers behaviour and beliefs
The impact of a group on a members behaviour and beliefs
The impact of a member on a groups activities and structure
The impact of one group and other groups’ activities and structures
-Sociology is the scientific of the development, structure and functioning of human society
Sociological Social Psychologists are interested in the relationship between individuals and groups and broader social
structures
-Psychology is the scientific study of the individual and of individual behaviour
Psychological Social Psychologist are concerned with individual behaviour and social stimuli
-Social Psychology: A Social Science
Social psychologist examine human behaviour and the social world by following a scientific method
They make systematic observations of behaviour and formulate theories that are subject
Kam 2
Science: “… a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions
about the universe”
The Scientific method versus: Personal experience, commonsensical knowledge, philosophy
-What is a Theory?
“A set of interrelated propositions that organize and explains observed phenomena” Delamater & Myers
-Relies in large part on theory
It goes beyond mere observable facts by postulating casual relations among variables
-Theory is a tentative explanation of how we think, we are not necessarily proven as a fact, but think that something may work
in a certain way
If a theory is valid, it enables its user to explain the phenomena under consideration and make predictions about events not yet
observed
-Idea is that we should be able to test/predict a theories result
Theories cannot have opinionated responses, must not operate on a value based judgement
None of these theories meet the requirements for being a proper prediction
-Theoretical Perspectives
General explanations for a wide array of social behaviours in a variety of situations
Provide a frame of reference for interpreting and comparing a wide range of social situations and behaviours
Theoretical Perspectives: Social psychology investigates the 5 following theoretical perspectives
-Role Theory
-Reinforcement theory
-Cognitive theory
-Symbolic interaction theory
-Evolutionary Theory
-Role Theory
Much of observable social behaviour is people carrying out their roles, similar to actors performing on a stage
According to role theory, to change a persons behaviour, it is necessary to change or redefine his or her role
Rides within sociology and social psychology
Looks at how people act/ behave from the role of society/ groups that we are (art of)
How our actions are affected or predicted
Most observable behaviour is from roles that are adopted by society
Propositions in Role Theory
-People spend much of their lives participating in groups and organizations
-Within these groups, people occupy distant positions
-Each o f these positions entails a role, which is set of functions performed by the person for the group
-Groups formalized these expectations as norms, which are rules specifying how a person should behave
-Individuals usually carry out their roles and perform according to the the norms
-Group members check each individuals performance to determine whether it conforms to the group norms
Kam 3
-Idea that we social animals that participate in a social group
-Within the groups we follow a status quo/position
-We follow unwritten/written rules on how to behave accordingly
-Different roles have different expectations, but non the less are equally important, expectations can include; uniform,
language, associations
-Performing social norms that are informal indicators of how to act, we ten to know what they are and to follow them without
question
-Additional theory claims that explications on how to act in a give situation that predicts how we are to act or respond to a
situation
Limitations of Role Theory
-Role theory has difficulty explaining deviant behaviour, or any behaviour that violates the norms defining a given role
Deviant behaviour violates the females of roles
-Role theory does not and cannot explain how role expectations originate or how they change
-Roles have arguably changed dramatically i.e.: parenting, educators, etc.
-Reinforcement Theory
Central proposition
-People are more likely to preform a behaviour if it is followed by something pleasurable or by the removal of something
aversive
-People will refrain from a particular behaviour if it is followed by something aversive or the removal of something pleasant
-Second perspective that explain behaviour from a micro- focused level of an individual
-We are more likely to follow behaviours when they are positive results
Conditioning: A relationship is established between emitting a response and receiving a reinforcement
-If a person emits a particular response and this response is then reinforced, the connection between response and
reinforcement is strengthened
-How we tell people to act by falling with a positive outcome being reinforced, we are conditioning individuals act these ways
Stimulus — Response:
-Any event that leads to an alteration or change in behaviour is called a stimulus
-The change is behaviour induced by a stimulus is called a response
-Reinforcement is any favourable outcome that results from a response
-Stimulus discrimination occurs when a person learns the exact conditions under which a response will be reinforced
-Reinforcement may be positive/ negative
Limitations
-Reinforcement theory cannot easily explain altruism and martyrdom
-Behaviour is a result of eternal stimuli form a command and an outcome
- One problem that comes from this is that it frames people to only do things when there is a positive result to follow
-Cannot however explain all types of human behaviour and deviants
-Cognitive Theory
The mental activities (cognitive process) of an individual are important determinants of social behaviour
These cognitive processes include perception, memory, judgement, problem solving, decision making
An individual cognitive process intervene between external stimuli and behavioural responses

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Kam 1 - Intro to Social Psychology What is Social Psychology - Formal Definition: “The systematic study of the nature and causes of human social behaviour” (Delamater) • Causes: generally based on individual (dispostional/ Character) • Internal factors, genetic reasons, “hardwired” • Product of the individual and social behaviour - Explain social behaviour with internal factors (ie: aggression… social situation will be the leading cause of the situation - Social Psychologist argue against only personal reasons… argue use of situational factors - Stanley Milgram’s obedience to authority experiments: Interested in world war 2… awful acts commented in Germany • Wanted to answer questions: Whether or not a person be instructed to do something bad to person B • Individual explanation… found out more than 5% of people (about 1/2) • By changing small parameters of the experiments … you could change the stats of the survey —> the social situation shows (matters the most) - Key ideas to take away from his course: • Social psychologist are skeptical of personal experience as a means to understanding human social behaviour (Deeply problematic hence why we need to rely on systematic observation instead … without this will make mistakes) • Recognizing the “power of the situation” in human social behaviour - Topics of Interest to social Psychologist • Socialization and social origins of the self • The social basis to perception and cognition • Social influence and persuasion • Conformity in groups • What causes aggressive versus altruistic behaviour? • social roles and individuals behaviours - Social Psychology: Four Core Concerns: • The impact of one individual on another’s behaviour and beliefs • The impact of a group on a member’s behaviour and beliefs • The impact of a member on a groups activities and structure • The impact of one group and other groups’activities and structures - Sociology is the scientific of the development, structure and functioning of human society • Sociological Social Psychologists are interested in the relationship between individuals and groups and broader social structures - Psychology is the scientific study of the individual and of individual behaviour • Psychological Social Psychologist are concerned with individual behaviour and social stimuli - Social Psychology:ASocial Science • Social psychologist examine human behaviour and the social world by following a scientific method • They make systematic observations of behaviour and formulate theories that are subject Kam 2 • Science: “… a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe” • The Scientific method versus: Personal experience, commonsensical knowledge, philosophy - What is a Theory? • “Aset of interrelated propositions that organize and explains observed phenomena” Delamater & Myers - Relies in large part on theory • It goes beyond mere observable facts by postulating casual relations among variables - Theory is a tentative explanation of how we think, we are not necessarily proven as a fact, but think that something may work in a certain way • If a theory is valid, it enables its user to explain the phenomena under consideration and make predictions about events not yet observed - Idea is that we should be able to test/predict a theories result • Theories cannot have opinionated responses, must not operate on a value based judgement • None of these theories meet the requirements for being a proper prediction - Theoretical Perspectives • General explanations for a wide array of social behaviours in a variety of situations • Provide a frame of reference for interpreting and comparing a wide range of social situations and behaviours • Theoretical Perspectives: Social psychology investigates the 5 following theoretical perspectives - Role Theory - Reinforcement theory - Cognitive theory - Symbolic interaction theory - Evolutionary Theory - Role Theory • Much of observable social behaviour is people carrying out their roles, similar to actors performing on a stage • According to role theory, to change a persons behaviour, it is necessary to change or redefine his or her role • Rides within sociology and social psychology • Looks at how people act/ behave from the role of society/ groups that we are (art of) • How our actions are affected or predicted • Most observable behaviour is from roles that are adopted by society • Propositions in Role Theory - People spend much of their lives participating in groups and organizations - Within these groups, people occupy distant positions - Each o f these positions entails a role, which is set of functions performed by the person for the group - Groups formalized these expectations as norms, which are rules specifying how a person should behave - Individuals usually carry out their roles and perform according to the the norms - Group members check each individuals performance to determine whether it conforms to the group norms Kam 3 - Idea that we social animals that participate in a social group - Within the groups we follow a status quo/position - We follow unwritten/written rules on how to behave accordingly - Different roles have different expectations, but non the less are equally important, expectations can include; uniform, language, associations - Performing social norms that are informal indicators of how to act, we ten to know what they are and to follow them without question - Additional theory claims that explications on how to act in a give situation that predicts how we are to act or respond to a situation • Limitations of Role Theory - Role theory has difficulty explaining deviant behaviour, or any behaviour that violates the norms defining a given role • Deviant behaviour violates the females of roles - Role theory does not and cannot explain how role expectations originate or how they change - Roles have arguably changed dramatically i.e.: parenting, educators, etc. - Reinforcement Theory • Central proposition - People are more likely to preform a behaviour if it is followed by something pleasurable or by the removal of something aversive - People will refrain from a particular behaviour if it is followed by something aversive or the removal of something pleasant - Second perspective that explain behaviour from a micro- focused level of an individual - We are more likely to follow behaviours when they are positive results • Conditioning: Arelationship is established between emitting a response and receiving a reinforcement - If a person emits a particular response and this response is then reinforced, the connection between response and reinforcement is strengthened - How we tell people to act by falling with a positive outcome being reinforced, we are conditioning individuals act these ways • Stimulus — Response: - Any event that leads to an alteration or change in behaviour is called a stimulus - The change is behaviour induced by a stimulus is called a response - Reinforcement is any favourable outcome that results from a response - Stimulus discrimination occurs when a person learns the exact conditions under which a response will be reinforced - Reinforcement may be positive/ negative • Limitations - Reinforcement theory cannot easily explain altruism and martyrdom - Behaviour is a result of eternal stimuli form a command and an outcome - One problem that comes from this is that it frames people to only do things when there is a positive result to follow - Cannot however explain all types of human behaviour and deviants - Cognitive Theory • The mental activities (cognitive process) of an individual are important determinants of social behaviour • These cognitive processes include perception, memory, judgement, problem solving, decision making • An individual cognitive process intervene between external stimuli and behavioural responses Kam 4 • Understanding human behaviour as an internal process that affects our behaviour • Cognitive Structure and Schemas - Refers to any type of organization among cognitions (concepts and beliefs) - Social psychologist propose that individuals use one kind of cognitive structure called schemas to explain complicate information about other people, groups and situations - Schemas are a way of organizing the way we interpret things (ie: doors are rectangle) - Schemas are very important to how we interpret the world are arguably self preservations from evolutionary learning • Cognitive Consistency - Maintains that individuals strive to hold ideas that are consistent with one another, rather than ideas that are inconsistent or incongruous - If a person holds several ideas that are incongruous or inconsistent, then he/she will experience internal conflict - We are motivated to have consistency in what we observe, and want positivity - Cognitive dissonance theory, how attitudes shape behaviour shapes attitudes - we will often ignore inconsistencies to have consistency • Limitations of Cognitive Theory - Cognitive theory simplifies the way people process information, an inherently complex phenomenon - Cognitive phenomena are not directly observable; they must be inferred from what people say and do - Symbolic Interaction Theory • Human nature and social order are products of symbolic communication among people • In the perspective, a person’s behaviour is constructed through a give and take during his/ her interaction with others • The “self” occupies a central place in symbolic interaction theory because social order is hypothesize to rest in part of self- control • Because individuals are continually engaging in role taking, they see themselves from the viewpoint of others • Individuals care most about the opinions of significant others, people who control important rewards or occupy key points in their group • Limitations of symbolic Interaction Theory - Overemphasizes rational, self- conscious through and de-emphasizes unconscious or emotional states - The individual is depicted as a specific personality type— an other directed person who is concerned primarily with mounting self- respect by meeting others’standards - Places too much emphasis on cooperation and neglects the importance of conflict - We are always looking for confirmation from society - Evolutionary Theory • Evolutionary social psychologists extend evolutionary ideas to explain social behaviour • The predisposition toward certain behaviours is encoded in our genetic material and is passed on through reproduction • Characteristics that enable the individual to survive and pass on its genetic code will eventually occur • Circular reasoning —> Why did the behaviour begin in the first place? • Ignores the role of cultural and social factors —> choice of mates has changed historically Kam 5 Research Methods - Aggregates, not Individuals • Social scientific theories deal with aggregated and not individual behaviour — their goal is to explain aggregate patterns of behaviour that are regular even though individuals within the aggregate vary over time • These theories try to understand the systems in which people operate — the elements of the systems are not individuals but variables (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cBdxDFpDp_k) - Research Methods • Methods for testing casual relationships between phenomena • Variable:Any characteristic or attribute that varies (gender, age, income) - Variables • Independent variables (X):Avariable that has an effect an another variable — ie: things that we think is causing something else • Dependent variables (Y): The outcome or the variable that is being chased by the IV — thing that is being caused, a case that is depended on something else • Extraneous variables (Z): Possible other variable that might account for the relationship between X and Y - Causality • Temporal Order • Co-variation (association or correlation) BUT correlation is not equal to causation • Non- spuriousness - Spurious Relationships • When a apparently casual relationship between two variables is actually accounted for by a their variable (Z) • When we find out that another common variable is affecting the relationship between X and Y - ex:Astudy in the US was done to examine the correlation between the rates in ice cream sales and homicides - It was found that the only relationship was in the temperature - Weather is associated with both by increasing the probability chances of both to occur - It is entirely spurious, something else is causing the relationship/ correlation between the two - Experiments • An operation or procedure carried out under controlled conditions in order to test a hypothesis - Used to examine cause and affect relations between IV and DV • Involves manipulation of the IV to examine its effects on the DV, while holding constant extraneous variables (Zs) • Also involves random assignment of participants to carious levels of the IV • We know only that an independent variable is the case since everything else has remained the same • Examples: - Selection of seat position of student predict the grades in which they will receive why the courses end - The front will do better while the back does poorly Kam 6 - This is false considering that there is a common factor of motivation to consider • 2 features of experiments help establish causality - Manipulation of the IV - Random assignment to levels of the IV • Other experimental terms - Treatment VS control group - Field VS laboratory experiments - Challenges to Experimental Designs • Hawthorne Effect: Aterm coined in reference to a series of productivity studies at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in Chicago, Illinois - The researches discovered that their presence affected the behaviour of the workers being studied - The term now refers to any impact of research on the subject of study • Solution: Have control group that does not experience the manipulation— if this group improves without the stimulus, the presence of the researcher may be contaminating the study - Experimental and Control Groups • The need for control groups is very common in medical research • The control group receives an experimental doctor that is not a real factor but a placebo. Persons in the control group or persons in the experimental group are not aware of the “real” factor or the “placebo” factor - Strengths and Weakness of Experiments • Strengths - Strong internal validity - Artificiality - Replication • Weaknesses - Unrealistic lab setting (threat to internal validity) - Weaker external validity: generalizing to broader groups can be difficult - Sometimes unethical - Surveys • Surveys can be used for descriptive, explanatory or exploratory studies • Most often, people are the unit of analysis • When the unit is not the individual, it is still the individual who is contacted — the person is called a respondent - Respondent:Aperson who provides data for analysis by responding to a survey questionnaire • Surveys are excellent tools for measuring the attitudes or orientations of a large population - ex: Gallup, Ipsos, and Decima • Methods - Procedure for collecting information by asking members of some population a set of questions and recording their responses Kam 7 - Provides self- reported data that can be coded numerically into variables - Survey researchers then examine how these variables are associated • Strengths - Can be cheaper to administer then experiments - Easier to generalize to broader pops (strong external validity) - Can test many hypotheses in a single survey • Weaknesses - Harder to establish internal validity - less control over IV - Harder to establish temporal oder and rule out spurious association - Self report bias Socialization - Genie (feral child) • 1970 discovered • Age 13 when she was found • Kept her in the room permanently • Still wearing diapers • No contact with anyone besides parents • Found the effects of this were sever —> cannot speak, trouble with motor skills • Opportunity for researchers to answer some questions • Is language something we are born with or something that is learned? —> all grew up in social grips and learn it - Socialization • The ways in which individuals learn and recreate skills, knowledge, values, motives, and roles appropriate to their position in a group or society (Delamater) • Socialization is therefore ‘the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained’(Clausen 1989) • Aprocess of where we form a sense of identity —> uniqueness • Delimiter: Aprocess where we have become functional members of society, at the same time it is a process of level self and identity • Some stability in culture —> interpret socialization in different ways and see changes - Types of Socialization: • Primary Socialization - Area of stages child learn attitudes, appropriate behaviours all to a specific culture - Learn this through immediate family and friends - Learn this early years • Secondary Socialization - values, appropriate behaviours members in a small group within the larger society - ex: school —> outside from school Kam 8 - Some similarities however it is different relationship (teacher is more on rules however parents are more for caring and affection) - Not just early stages of life • Anticipatory Socialization - Process in which rehearse for future jobs or relationships - Do it in our minds in preparation for that role - Ex: How would I be a parent to a child? What are my roles? • Re- Socialization - Process we discard old behaviours and start new behaviours - Intense and sharp transition for some individual who is going through it and switching - Ex: total institution: Jail (prisoner) leaving jail and entering back into society or being part of theArmy - Perspectives on Socialization • Psychological - Development Theory: Timing and sequencing of physical/ psychological development in early childhood • Deals with biology and stages in which children learn to talk, have emotions, have motor skills, frames it as a progression of abilities being learned • Social learning • Is there a specific time when we need to learn language and if we miss that “timing” will we ever be able to learn a language? - Social Learning Theory:Acquisition of cognitive and behaviour skills in interaction with the environment as they develop • Socialization is a process shared meanings within their groups (family) • Idea that what we learn to (content of the learning) may differ from one child to another (culture, family dynamics)— process is the same or standardize • ex: instrumental conditions and observational leraning • Sociological - Interpretive Theory: Discovery of the meanings common to the social group. Emphasis on the role of Communication and cultural routines in learning process • Emphasis the child’s role in the learning process to get that outcome • Less emphasis on walking (physical) and how children learn shared meanings and values • Symbolic communications: cultural routine —> predictable activity (something that is predictable in our daily lives… greeting each other with a hand shake in north america) • May use objects to learn: - Social Structure: Socialization is organized according to the sequence of social roles that individuals occupy across the life course • ex: Son, student, parent • How we move from roles to roles — how we transition from one to the other • Learn from society, school, family - Social Isolation: Feral Children • The case of Genie (Notes from movie) —> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hmdycJQi4QA Kam 9 Genie and Socialization - Genie and Socialization • Primary Socialization (largely absent for Genie): - Limited social interaction with parents • Constructions of the situation, as well as a lack of language acquisition • Evidence of lack of physical contact from parents (attachment development), which is needed to stimulate learning, therefore leading to the lack of development - Confined to room and specific situation (eg: feeding) • Absence of emotional support, was not exposed to instrumental conditioning (process where someone learns the correct responses to a situation, presence of lack of presences) • Key Process identified by social learning theory absent - Instrumental Conditioning: • Sharping: Gradually increase correspondence between the learner’s behaviour and the desire response • External reinforcement VS internal reinforcement - Observational Learning: • Genie’s isolation meant that she had very little opportunity to observe even basic beahviorus, or more complex behavioural patterns (eg. dressing) - Rewards needs a correspond between behaviour, learning standards to judge ourselves by the value of a task that we perform - Learns language acquisition, lacked knowledge how what words even were or how to put words into a communication form - Genie and LangueAcquisition • Without language, children are unable to successfully undergo more complex socialization and learn about the values, norms and standards of a particular culture • Genie initially demonstrated little aptitude for the 3 components of language - Phonology: Sound system - Lexicon: Words and their associated meanings - Grammar: Rules of combining words into meaningful utterances • Without socialization she had no opportunity to develop her language skills • Question was if she would ever develop it, debated whether or not there was a critical period where language was developed or if it even would at all • The brain is still malleable up to a certain stage in our development, supports theory that early childhood education is key to the rest of a person’s life • Plasticity of brain is limited to age • Interaction of nature vs nuture, not just in the case of Genie • Documentary question where or not Genie already had learning disabilities prior to her isolation, can be a hindering factor to the case study Kam 1 0 - The Case of Genie (other observations) • Substitution of other communication skills? - Had the ability to use other forms of communication through tough or other forms of symbols - Evidence to show that there is always a way to develop abilities when other are impaired/ not possible • Language not necessary to form memories - Was able to recant memories - Evidence against language being necessary to have memories • Physical sense shaped by socialization - Hot/cold sensory is objective/ learning through observation • Cathartic strategies are learned - Expressions are usually associate with an emotion - Genie has to be shown how to feel emotionally and pair it with an action - Punishment • Prevalence - 50% of Canadians parents with children (0-5) report corporal punishment • National Survey of Parents of Young Children (2000) - Majority can be classified as “normative non-use physical punishment” (Baumrind) • Consequences - Physical punishment is associate with future antisocial behaviour in children (pg. 37 Straus et. al 1997) • Straus et. al 1997: “Spanking by parents and subsequent antisocial behaviour of children” - 807 mothers of children aged 6-9 years in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement • Longitudinal (two waves - 2 years apart) • Variables: - Frequency of Spanking - Antisocial behaviour • Proposed Casual Relationship - Frequency of spanking (t1) —>Antisocial behaviour (t2) • Correlations - Away of showing relationship between 2 variables - When one goes up the other one follow pattern - Positive • People who do more revision get higher exam results • Revising increase success - Negative • When more jabs are given the number of people with flu falls
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit