A causes b: a quantity = an amount or mass of something. Ie; security cameras installed at mall (a), and then the courts have more shoplifting cases to process (b) We can measure the amount of cases before and after the installation of the cameras via quantative methods o : a quality an aspect, attribute or essence of something. As qualities are hard to measure with mathematical precision we thus need qualitative methods: ontology investigates the nature of being, what is real? (reality) Ie; is society an objective reality of its own kind (durkheim) or does it exist only subjectively in one"s mind: epistemology refers to ways of knowing and to problems in ascertaining what is true (knowledge) Interpretation the personal and subjective way people perceive and respond to social experiences. Newspapers report that more women are taking up archery. why might that be: constructivist- an approach that holds that social reality is subjective.