PSYC 1001 Key Terms & Concepts Chapters 1 and 2

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Mount Allison University
PSYC 1001
Dr.Mc Grath

Psychology 1001: Intro to Psych I Chapters 1 & 2 Cydney Kane psychology: the scientific study of the mind, brain and behaviour levels of analysis: lower levels tied to biological influences, higher levels tied to social influences multiply determined: caused by many factors individual differences: variations among people in their thinking, emotion, personality and behaviour naive realism: the belief that we see the world precisely as it is scientific theory: an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world, generates testable predictions and is backed up by evidence. The two major misconceptions about theories are 1) a theory explains one specific event and 2) a theory is just an educated guess hypothesis: a testable prediction derived from a scientific theory confirmation bias: the tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and deny, dismiss or distort evidence that contradicts them belief perseverance: the tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them metaphysical claims: assertions about the world that are not testable pseudoscience: a set of claims that appear to be scientific but are not warning signs of pseudoscience: • overuse of ad hoc immunizing hypotheses (protects a theory from being disproven) • lack of self-correction • over-reliance on anecdotes • exaggerated claims • absence of connectivity to other research • lack of peer review or replication • meaningless "psychobabble" • talk of "proof" instead of "evidence" apophenia: perceiving meaningful connections among unrelated or random phenomena pareidolia: perceiving meaningful images in meaningless visual stimuli terror management theory: a theory proposing that our awareness of our own inevitable death leaves us with an underlying sense of terror which we cope with by adopting reassuring cultural world views logical fallacies: traps in thinking that can lead to mistaken conclusions. Some examples are: • emotional reasoning fallacy: error of using our emotions as guides for evaluating the validity of a claim • bandwagon fallacy: error of assuming a claim is correct because many people believe it • either-or fallacy: error of framing a questions as though we can only answer it in only one of two extreme ways • not me fallacy: error of believing that we are immune from errors in thinking that afflict other people dangers of pseudoscience: • opportunity cost (what we give up) • direct harm • an inability to think scientifically as citizens scientific scepticism: evaluating all claims with an open mind, but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them critical thinking: set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open-minded and careful fashion six principles of scientific thinking: • ruling out rival hypotheses • correlation vs. causation • falsifiability • replicability • extraordinary claims • occam's razor risky prediction: a forecast that stands a good chance of being wrong introspection: method by which trained observers carefully reflect and report on their mental experiences great theoretical frameworks of psychology: • structuralism: aimed to identify the basic elements of psychological experience, relied heavily on introspection • functionalism: aimed to understand the adaptive purposes of psychological characteristics, influences by Darwin's theory of natural selection • behaviourism: focused on uncovering the general laws of learning by looking at observable behaviour. Led by John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner • cognitive psychology: proposes that thinking is central to understanding behaviour • psychoanalysis: focuses on internal psychological processes of which we're unaware. Led by Sigmund Freud types of psychologists: • clinical psychologist • counselling psychologists • school psychologists • developmental psychologist • experimental psychologist • biological psychologist • forensic psychologist • industrial-organizational psychologist the great debates of psychology: • the nature-nurture debate • the free will-determinism debate evolutionary psychology: discipline that applies Darwin's theory of natural selection to human and animal behaviour, believing that psychological systems are key adaptive functions basic research: examines how the mind works applied research: examines how we can use basic research to solve real-world problems heuristics: mental shortcut th
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