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[BIOL 1001] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 22 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1001
Professor
Margaret Caldwell
Study Guide
Final

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MUN
BIOL 1001
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1.1-The Principles of Life and Levels of Biological Organization
The Unifying Principles That Guide Out Understanding of Life
- There are 9 principles of life
oThe first 7 are common to all life forms
Principle 1: Cells are the simplest units of life
- Term organisms can be applied to all living things
oMaintain an internal order that is separated from the environment
oSimplest unit is the cell
- Cell theory states:
oAll organisms are composed of cells
oCells are the smallest units of life
oNew cells come from pre-existing cells by cell division
- Unicellular: Composed of one cell
- Multicellular: Contain many cells (plants and animals)
Principle 2: Living organisms use energy acquired from the environment
- To maintain internal order
- Carry out a variety of chemical reactions used for breakdown of nutrients
oOften release energy through respiration
- Energy can be used to synthesize the components that make up individual cells and living
organisms
- Metabolism: Chemical reactions involved with the breakdown and synthesis of cellular
molecules
- Plants, algae & some bacteria can harness light energy to produce their own nutrients
(photosynthesis)
oPrimary food producers
- Animals and fungi are consumers – use other organisms as food to obtain energy
- Other bacteria can use inorganic compounds (sulphur, iron, ammonium) as energy sources
Principle 3: Living organisms interact with their environment
- Must be able to interact with environments to survive (includes other organisms)
- Must be respond to environmental chances
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Principle 4: Living organisms have mechanisms that maintain homeostasis
- Homeostasis: Living organisms regulate their cells and bodies to maintain relatively stable
internal conditions
oThe degree to which is done varies between organisms
- All organisms regulate their cellular metabolism so nutrients are used at an appropriate rate and
new cellular components are synthesized when needed.
Principle 5: Living organisms grow, develop, and reproduce
- Growth produces more or larger organisms
oMulticellular may start out as unicellular, fertilized egg and then undergo multiple cell
divisions
- Development is a series of changes in the state of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism, resulting in
organisms with a defined set of characteristics
oUnicellular organisms: New cells are small and increase in volume by synthesis of
additional cellular components
- To sustain life, organisms must reproduce to generate offspring
Principle 6: The genetic material, DNA, provides a dynamic plan for sustaining life
- Key feature of reproduction is that offspring have characteristics that resemble their parents
- All organisms contain genetic material made up of DNA which provides a plan for their
organization, development, and function
- During reproduction, a copy of the DNA is transmitted from parent to offspring and the DNA is
used dynamically to fir the needs of the organism.
Principle 7: Populations of organisms evolve from one generation to the next
- Biological evolution: A heritable change in the DNA for a population of organisms from
generation to generation
oMay be neutral
oMay cause detectable change that become better adapted to the environment
- Natural selection: the best genes are passed on from generation to generation
oLess useful genes become extinct
Principle 8: All life is related by an evolutionary history
- Evidence from a variety of sources including fossil records and DNA sequences indicate that all
organisms share a common ancestry
Principle 9: Organisms follow the laws of chemistry and physics, and structure determines function
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