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[BIOL 3530] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (147 pages long)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 3530
Professor
Staveley
Study Guide
Final

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MUN
BIOL 3530
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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History and Basic Concepts
Developmental Biology is a fundamental aspect of biology.
Development depends upon complex mechanisms and many layers of "biological
information" that are superimposed one upon another.
As our techniques improve, developmental biology has the potential to be much better
understood.
Once, developmental biology was mostly descriptive (ie. descriptive/comparative
embryology). Modern developmental biology is mostly experimental.
Recent advances in cell biology, genetics and molecular biology has and will continue
to further our understanding of development unlike any time in the past.
Major Developmental Biology Questions:
1) What processes happen during development?
2) What mechanisms control development?
3) How can we control development?
4) To what goals can we apply controlled developmental biology?
Xenopus Development: A well characterized example of
early development
Early Xenopus development: fertilization
The unfertilized egg is a single large cell.
The animal pole, the upper part of the egg, has a pigmented surface.
The vegetal pole, lower region contains the yolk.
After fertilization, the male nucleus (from sperm) and female nucleus (from egg) fuse
to form one nucleus.
After fertilization, cleavage begins without growth (mitotic division only).
Xenopus blastulation
After ~12 cycles of division make a layer of small cells surrounding a fluid-filled
cavity (the blastocoel) that sits on top of the large yolk cells.
Three germ layers are mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm
The mesoderm is located at the "equator" and becomes muscle, cartilage, bone, heart,
blood, kidney
The endoderm is below the mesoderm and the ectoderm and becomes gut, lungs and
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liver
The ectoderm sits above the mesoderm and the endoderm and becomes the epidermis
and nervous system
In the blastula, these layers are all on the surface and they interact!
Xenopus gastrulation & neuralation
Gastrulation is an extensive rearrangement of embryonic cells mesoderm and
endoderm move to the inside of the embryo to give the basic body plan.
For the most part, the inside of the frog is now inside and the "outside" except for the
skin is outside.
Notochord is a rod-like structure that runs from the head to the tail and lies beneath
the nervous system.
Somites are segmented blocks of mesoderm form on either side of notochord which
become muscles, spinal column and dermis (skin).
Neuralation occurs when ectoderm above the notochord folds to form neural tube
(becomes spinal cord & brain).
The tailbud stage follows the completion of neuralation.
Epigenesis versus preformation
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