LING 1100 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Bound And Unbound Morphemes, Affix, Pronoun

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2 Feb 2016
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Linguistics Denitions
Linguistics: the scientic study of language, including language
structure, language variation, language change, the development of
language and the psychology and biology of language.
Linguistic Competence: the knowledge you have about words in
your language(s) (=mental lexicon) and how to use and understand
you language(s) (=mental grammar)
Mental Grammar: the (unconscious) linguistic competence of
speakers
Descriptive Grammar: the description of the mental grammar
Prescriptive Grammar: set of rules imposed on a language or dialect
Mode of Communication: messages are sent and received
Semanticity: All signals (e.g., words) have meaning or function
Pragmatic Function: Language serves some useful purpose (e.g.,
questioning, in$uencing, directing)
Interchangeability: individuals can both receive and transmit
messages
Cultural Transmission: acquired through interaction with users of the
system
Arbitrariness: the connection between the sound (form) and meaning
of a word is typically unpredictable
Discreteness: can be broken down into discrete-ish (separate) units
Displacement: can communicate things that aren’t currently present
Productivity: productive-e.g. can make novel words, sentence
Onomatopoeia: words that imitate sounds of nature. Sound more
exactly like what they mean.
Morpheme: smallest part of a word that contributes meaning or a
grammatical function
Roots: the morpheme of a word that carries the most meaning
A$xes: morphemes that attach to roots (or stems); don’t carry the
main meaning; often more abstract than roots
Free morpheme: can occur by itself
Bound morpheme: cannot occur by itself. Must attach to another
morpheme
Noun: person, place or thing. Can function as subject, direct object, or
indirect object
Verb: describes an action or state. Can function as predicate
Adjective: describes a noun or pronoun
Adverb: describes a verb or adjective
Pronoun: a word that substitutes for a noun or noun-phrase
Determiner: expresses the reference of the noun or noun phase in
the context. Ex. I’ll take this one.
Conjunction: used to connect clauses or sentences (ex. and, if, but)
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