Friday, September 9, 2016
Ch. 5 - Understanding Sentence Grammar
• 8 Parts of Speech:
Noun - person, place, or thing ; quality or idea (e.g. freedom, success)
Pronoun - word used in place of a noun ; acts like a noun in a sentence
Verb- expresses actions, occurrences, or states of being
Adjective - describes a noun or pronoun
Adverb - describes a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or a whole group of
Preposition - forms a noun or pronoun into a word group called a *prepositional
Conjunction - word that links and relates parts of a sentence
Interjection - word or phrase standing by itself or inserted into a sentence in
order to express feeling or command attention(e.g. sounds, looks, etc.)
*Prepositional Phrase - pre-positions the noun or pronoun
- functions like an adjective or adverb
- blustery morning - cloudy one - two days
Depending on the function of a sentence, numbers can be a noun, pronoun, or
- nearly destroyed - too quickly - very generous
- Unfortunately, taxes will rise.
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Prepositional Phrase Examples: Refer to page 183 (common prepositions e.g about, above,
- That novel is about love.
- We walked very carefully down the steep staircase.
- Hey! Ouch! What the heck did you do that for?
Don’t use interjections or exclamation marks in essays unless in a quote.
• 5 Types of Nouns:
Common - name general classes of things & do not begin with a lower capital
letters (not speciﬁc) ; e.g student, person, university
Proper - name speciﬁc people, places or things & do begin with capital letters ;
e.g. University of British Columbia
Count - name things considered countable in English ; form plurals, usually by
adding “s” or “es” ; e.g. citizen—> citizens , city —> cities
Non-count - name things that are not considered countable in English & do not
form plurals ; e.g. Earth, sugar, quality(chaos, fortitude)
Collective - singular in form but they name groups ; e.g. army, family, herd
Some words are countable or non-countable
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• 8 Types of Pronouns:
Personal - refer to speciﬁc individuals ; e.g. I, you, he, she, it, we, they
Indeﬁnite - do not substitute any speciﬁc nouns ; do function like nouns or other
types of pronouns ; e.g. Everybody speaks in class.
Relative - relates groups of words to nouns or other pronouns ; e.g. who,
whoever, which, that ; e.g. The book that won is a novel
Interrogative - pronoun that introduces a question ; e.g. who, which, what (asks
a question) ; e.g. Who will pass this class?
Intensive - personal pronoun + self or selves ; emphasizes a noun or other
pronoun ; e.g. He himself asked the question.
Reﬂexive - personal pronoun + self or selves ; indicates that the sentence
subject also receives the action of the verb ; e.g. He questioned himself.
E.g. ) They themselves injured themselves.
Demonstrative - identiﬁes or points to a noun (demonstrates something) ; e.g.
this, that, such ; e.g This is the problem.
Reciprocal - indicates a kind of reciprocity ; e.g. They loved each other. ; e.g.
They all helped one another.
DO NOT WRITE: No one except myself saw the accident.
WRITE: No one except me saw the accident.
• Noun Form - distinguishes between singular, plural, or possessive
• student, students student’s, students’ boss’s car, bosses’ car
• Article/Determiners - 2 types: 1) Deﬁnite Article - “the” 2) Indeﬁnite Article - “a,an”
• Helping Verb / Auxiliary Verb - verb used with another verb to convey time* or
• *time: They had gone to the store.
• **obligation: They must go to the store.
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3 Forms of Adjectives and Adverbs:
Positive Degree - dictionary form (simple, uncompared form)
Comparative Degree - compares the thing described to at least one other thing
(e.g. er, more, less)
Superlative Degree - thing described exceeds all other things to which it is
being compared (e.g. est, most, least)
Adjectives: green —> greener —> greenest
Irregular Adjectives: good —> better —> best
bad —> worse —> worst
Irregular Adverbs: well—> better —> best
badly —> worse —> worst
Irregular Adjectives: little—littler —> littlest
littl—> less —> least
Count: many —> more —> most
Count / Non-count: some —> more —> most
Non-count: much —> more —> most
Adjectives: hungry —> hungrier —> hungriest
Adverbs: hungrily —> more hungrily —> most hungrily
Adjectives: quick —> quicker —> quickest
Adverbs: quickly —> more quickly —> most quickly
Prepositional Phrase Function - usually functions like an adjective or adverb
Sentence Subject & Predicate:
Sentence - grammatically complete & independent, and it contains a subject
and a predicate
Subject - what the sentence is about ; has a noun
Predicate - says something about the subject / describes an action by the
subject ; has a verb
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Simple Subject = noun or pronoun
Complete Subject = noun, pronoun, or modiﬁers(describes something) + words “a, the”
Simple Predicate = verb and any helping verbs
Complete Predicate = verb and any modiﬁers, or any other words needed to complete
the meaning of a sentence
Subject & Predicate Examples:
- Bilbo journeyed.
- Bilbo, the timid little hobbit, journeyed through Mirkwood.
Subordinating word = subordinating conjunction —> introduces the subordinating
Subordinating clause —> has a subject & a predicate, but can not stand alone as a
sentence because it begins with a subordinating word
**Refer to p. 191 for examples
Subordinating Clause Example:
- Although we wanted the summer off, we went to school.
3 Kinds of Conjunctions: +1 (Adverbial Conjunctions)
Coordinating Conjunctions - connect words or word groups of equal
grammatical value, OR connect lists, OR main clauses
and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet
- The lights went out, but the doctors and nurses continued working.
Correlative Conjunctions / Correlatives - two or more connecting words that
- either…or, not only…but also, neither…nor
- He was certain that either his parent or his brother would give him money.
- NOTE: Not only are we taking math, but we are also taking English 112.
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Subordinating Conjunctions - begin a subordinate clause & link it to the main
- after, although, as if, because, if , when , while
- The students slept while the professor lectured.
The 5 Basic Sentence Patterns:
Subject Verb(transitive) Direct Object
Subject Verb(linking) Supplement Complement
Subject Verb(transitive) Indirect Object Direct Object
Subject Verb(transitive) Direct Object Object Complement
intransitive verb - a verb that does not require a following word to complete its
- a following word is the direct object
- e.g. The dog barked.
transitive verb - a verb that does require a direct object to complete its meaning
- e.g. The boy threw the ball.
object - noun, pronoun, or word group that receives the action of a transitive verb or a
3 Types of Objects:
direct object - a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb & follows it
in a sentence and can identify who or what receives the action of a verb ; e.g.
The baby ate the dog’s biscuit.
indirect object - comes before the direct object ; tells us for or to whom the
action of the verb is performed ; e.g. I lent the student my book.
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object of a preposition - tells us for or to whom the action of the verb is
performed ; follows a preposition ; e.g. I lent my book to the student ; e.g. The
principal gave detentions to us.
Linking Verb - links the subject to the description
- forms the verb “to be” or “become” (verbs related to the senses)
- e.g. The baby became a toddler
- e.g. That guinea pig looks ferocious.
Complement - a word or word group that completes the meaning of a subject or an
• 2 Kinds of Complements:
Subject Complement - follows a linking verb & describes a
- may be an adjective, a noun, or a pronoun
A. Adjective Complement - a.k.a.: predicate adjective
B. Noun Complement - a.k.a.: predicate nominative/
e.g. The man is a lion tamer, but he is not yet experienced.
Object Complement - follows & describes a direct object
- may be an adjective or a noun
e.g. If you elect me president, I will keep the peop