ENGL 112 Quiz: ENG 112: Study Guide - Quiz/Midterms

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University of British Columbia - Okanagan
ENGL 112
Lainie Senger- Hipolito

Friday, September 9, 2016 ENG 112 Ch. 5 - Understanding Sentence Grammar • 8 Parts of Speech: Noun - person, place, or thing ; quality or idea (e.g. freedom, success) Pronoun - word used in place of a noun ; acts like a noun in a sentence Verb- expresses actions, occurrences, or states of being Adjective - describes a noun or pronoun Adverb - describes a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or a whole group of words Preposition - forms a noun or pronoun into a word group called a *prepositional phrase Conjunction - word that links and relates parts of a sentence Interjection - word or phrase standing by itself or inserted into a sentence in order to express feeling or command attention(e.g. sounds, looks, etc.) *Prepositional Phrase - pre-positions the noun or pronoun - functions like an adjective or adverb Adjective Examples: - blustery morning - cloudy one - two days NOTE: Depending on the function of a sentence, numbers can be a noun, pronoun, or adjective. Adverb Examples: - nearly destroyed - too quickly - very generous - Unfortunately, taxes will rise. 1 Friday, September 9, 2016 Prepositional Phrase Examples: Refer to page 183 (common prepositions e.g about, above, etc.) - That novel is about love. - We walked very carefully down the steep staircase. Interjection Examples: - Hey! Ouch! What the heck did you do that for? NOTE: Don’t use interjections or exclamation marks in essays unless in a quote. • 5 Types of Nouns: Common - name general classes of things & do not begin with a lower capital letters (not specific) ; e.g student, person, university Proper - name specific people, places or things & do begin with capital letters ; e.g. University of British Columbia Count - name things considered countable in English ; form plurals, usually by adding “s” or “es” ; e.g. citizen—> citizens , city —> cities Non-count - name things that are not considered countable in English & do not form plurals ; e.g. Earth, sugar, quality(chaos, fortitude) Collective - singular in form but they name groups ; e.g. army, family, herd NOTE: Some words are countable or non-countable 2 Friday, September 9, 2016 • 8 Types of Pronouns: Personal - refer to specific individuals ; e.g. I, you, he, she, it, we, they Indefinite - do not substitute any specific nouns ; do function like nouns or other types of pronouns ; e.g. Everybody speaks in class. Relative - relates groups of words to nouns or other pronouns ; e.g. who, whoever, which, that ; e.g. The book that won is a novel Interrogative - pronoun that introduces a question ; e.g. who, which, what (asks a question) ; e.g. Who will pass this class? Intensive - personal pronoun + self or selves ; emphasizes a noun or other pronoun ; e.g. He himself asked the question. Reflexive - personal pronoun + self or selves ; indicates that the sentence subject also receives the action of the verb ; e.g. He questioned himself. E.g. ) They themselves injured themselves. Demonstrative - identifies or points to a noun (demonstrates something) ; e.g. this, that, such ; e.g This is the problem. Reciprocal - indicates a kind of reciprocity ; e.g. They loved each other. ; e.g. They all helped one another. DO NOT WRITE: No one except myself saw the accident. WRITE: No one except me saw the accident. Terms: • Noun Form - distinguishes between singular, plural, or possessive • student, students student’s, students’ boss’s car, bosses’ car • Article/Determiners - 2 types: 1) Definite Article - “the” 2) Indefinite Article - “a,an” • Helping Verb / Auxiliary Verb - verb used with another verb to convey time* or obligation** • *time: They had gone to the store. • **obligation: They must go to the store. 3 Friday, September 9, 2016 3 Forms of Adjectives and Adverbs: Positive Degree - dictionary form (simple, uncompared form) Comparative Degree - compares the thing described to at least one other thing (e.g. er, more, less) Superlative Degree - thing described exceeds all other things to which it is being compared (e.g. est, most, least) Comparisons: Adjectives: green —> greener —> greenest Irregular Adjectives: good —> better —> best bad —> worse —> worst Irregular Adverbs: well—> better —> best badly —> worse —> worst Irregular Adjectives: little—littler —> littlest littl—> less —> least Count: many —> more —> most Count / Non-count: some —> more —> most Non-count: much —> more —> most Adjectives: hungry —> hungrier —> hungriest Adverbs: hungrily —> more hungrily —> most hungrily Adjectives: quick —> quicker —> quickest Adverbs: quickly —> more quickly —> most quickly Prepositional Phrase Function - usually functions like an adjective or adverb Sentence Subject & Predicate: Sentence - grammatically complete & independent, and it contains a subject and a predicate Subject - what the sentence is about ; has a noun Predicate - says something about the subject / describes an action by the subject ; has a verb 4 Friday, September 9, 2016 Definitions: Simple Subject = noun or pronoun Complete Subject = noun, pronoun, or modifiers(describes something) + words “a, the” Simple Predicate = verb and any helping verbs Complete Predicate = verb and any modifiers, or any other words needed to complete the meaning of a sentence Subject & Predicate Examples: - Bilbo journeyed. - Bilbo, the timid little hobbit, journeyed through Mirkwood. Subordinating word = subordinating conjunction —> introduces the subordinating clause Subordinating clause —> has a subject & a predicate, but can not stand alone as a sentence because it begins with a subordinating word **Refer to p. 191 for examples Subordinating Clause Example: - Although we wanted the summer off, we went to school. 3 Kinds of Conjunctions: +1 (Adverbial Conjunctions) Coordinating Conjunctions - connect words or word groups of equal grammatical value, OR connect lists, OR main clauses - and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet - The lights went out, but the doctors and nurses continued working. Correlative Conjunctions / Correlatives - two or more connecting words that work together - either…or, not only…but also, neither…nor - He was certain that either his parent or his brother would give him money. - NOTE: Not only are we taking math, but we are also taking English 112. 5 Friday, September 9, 2016 Subordinating Conjunctions - begin a subordinate clause & link it to the main clause - after, although, as if, because, if , when , while - The students slept while the professor lectured. The 5 Basic Sentence Patterns: Subject Verb(intransitive) Subject Verb(transitive) Direct Object Subject Verb(linking) Supplement Complement Subject Verb(transitive) Indirect Object Direct Object Subject Verb(transitive) Direct Object Object Complement Definitions: intransitive verb - a verb that does not require a following word to complete its meaning - a following word is the direct object - e.g. The dog barked. transitive verb - a verb that does require a direct object to complete its meaning - e.g. The boy threw the ball. object - noun, pronoun, or word group that receives the action of a transitive verb or a preposition 3 Types of Objects: direct object - a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb & follows it in a sentence and can identify who or what receives the action of a verb ; e.g. The baby ate the dog’s biscuit. indirect object - comes before the direct object ; tells us for or to whom the action of the verb is performed ; e.g. I lent the student my book. 6 Friday, September 9, 2016 object of a preposition - tells us for or to whom the action of the verb is performed ; follows a preposition ; e.g. I lent my book to the student ; e.g. The principal gave detentions to us. Linking Verb - links the subject to the description - forms the verb “to be” or “become” (verbs related to the senses) - e.g. The baby became a toddler - e.g. That guinea pig looks ferocious. Complement - a word or word group that completes the meaning of a subject or an object • 2 Kinds of Complements: Subject Complement - follows a linking verb & describes a subject - may be an adjective, a noun, or a pronoun A. Adjective Complement - a.k.a.: predicate adjective B. Noun Complement - a.k.a.: predicate nominative/ predicate noun e.g. The man is a lion tamer, but he is not yet experienced. Object Complement - follows & describes a direct object - may be an adjective or a noun e.g. If you elect me president, I will keep the peop
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