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[ANAT 100] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (37 pages long)


Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 100
Professor
Leslie W Mac Kenzie
Study Guide
Midterm

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Queen's
ANAT 100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Module 1 | Week 1 | September 12-16
Section 1: The Importance of Anatomy
Anatomy study of structure (derived from Greek work “to cut apart”)
o Examining relationships among parts of body structure of individual organs
o Note: physiology studies the function of body structures
Four areas:
o 1. Histology (microscopic anat): structures you cannot see w naked eye. Studied
by preparing individual cells or studying thin slices under microscope.
Cytology (cellular anat)study of single body cells & their internal
structures
Histologystudy of tissues and their relationships within organs.
o 2. Gross anatomy (macroscopic anat): structure and relationships of large body
parts (visible to unaided eye e.g. stomach)
Comparative anatsimilarities and differences in ANAT of diff species
Developmentalchanges in structure within individual
Embryologydevelopmental changes occurring prior to birth
Surface anatsuperficial anatomic markings and internal body strcutures
as they relate to the skin covering them (e.g. obtaining pulse)
Systemic anatgross anatomy of each system
o 3. Neuroanatomy
o 4. Embryology
o Specialized braches focusing on diagnosis of medical conditions/research
Pathologicall anatomic changes resulting from disease
Radiographicinternal structures visualized by medical imaging
Form and function inextricably linked (anatomy and physiology)
o Organization of structure means by which specific function is carried out.
o Proper form = proper functioning.
Section 2: Organization of the Human Body and Nomenclature
Structures can be organized by fundamental levels from cells organ system
o Chemical: molecule = group of atoms bonded together (atoms smallest unit)
o Cellular: cells (smallest living structure); formed from atoms and molecules
o Tissue: groups of similar cells that perform specialized functions
o Organ: two or more tissues working together to perform complex functions
o Organ system: related organs work together; coordinate activities/common
function
o Organism: single complete individualall body systems interdependently
Structures can be microscopic (small) and macroscopic (large)
o Macroscopic levelorganize organs into organ systems based on function.
Characteristics of living things: organization, metabolism, growth/development,
responsiveness, adaptation, regulation, reproduction
Organ systems
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Integumentary
Protection, regulates body temp., site of cutaneous
receptors, synthesizes vitamin D, prevents water loss
Skin, hair, nails, sense receptors, sweat
gland
Skeletal
Support & protection, hemopoiesis (blood cell
production), stores calcium & phosphorous
Bones, joints
Muscular
Produces body movement, generates heat
Muscles
Nervous
Regulatory system. Controls body movement,
responds to sensory stimuli, helps control all other
systems. Consciousness, intelligence, memory.
Brain, spinal cord, nerves
Endocrine
Glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones (some
regulate body and cellular growth, chemical levels in
body, reproductive functions).
Pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid
gland, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals,
pancreas (islet tissue)
Digestive
Mechanically & chemically digests food materials,
absorbs nutrients, expels waste products.
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach,
small i., large i., rectum, anal canal
Respiratory
Exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) bw blood and air in
lungs.
Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea,
bronchi, lungs
Cardiovascular
Heart moves blood thru vessels to distribute
hormones, nutrients, gases; pick up waste products.
Blood, heart, blood vessels
Lymphatic
Transports/filters lymph (intersitital fluid transported
thru lymph vessels); initiates immune response.
Lymph nodes, lymph vessels, thymus,
spleen, tonsils
Urinary
Filters blood, removes waste products from blood,
concentrates waste products in urine, expels urine
from body.
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder,
urethra
Reproductive
Produces sex cells/hormones. Male transfers sperm to
female. Female receives sperm, site of fertilization of
oocyte, growth & development of embryo and fetus.
Gonads, genital ducts, accessory
organs, genitalia
Body cavities: organ systems enclosed within distinct spacescontain & protect our vital
organs
Posterior Aspect Cavities
Description
Serous Membrane
Cranial cavity
Formed by cranium; houses brain
None
Vetebral canal
Formed by vertebral column, contains spinal cord
None
Ventral Cavities
Thoracic Cavity
-Mediastinum
-Pericardial
-Pleural
Chest cavity; bordered by chest wall and diaphragm
-Pericardial cavity, thymus, trach, esophag., major bld vssls
-Contains the heart
-Contains the lungs
None
Pericardium
Pleura
Abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominal and Pelvic cavities
Peritoneum
Body organized into two main regions
o Axial: main vertical axis of the body and includes the head, neck and trunk.
o Appendicular: includes limbs or appendages that attach to the axis.
o Axial (body structures along midline); appendicular (further from midline)
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