Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
Queen's (5,000)
ANAT (100)
Study Guide

[ANAT 100] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 63 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 100
Professor
Leslie W Mac Kenzie
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 63 pages of the document.
Queen's
ANAT 100
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

ANAT 100 Module 1 Notes
Learning Outcomes
1. Locate and name the major body cavities, and investigate their relationships to each other
2. Apply defined terms used to describe and identify body sections, regions, planes, and the relative
location of body structures
3. Explain characteristics of epithelium and connective tissue and identify them at the microscopic
level
Section 1: The Importance of Anatomy
Definition of Anatomy
- Anatomy is the study of structure.
- The word anatomy is derived from Greek and means to ut apart
- I aato, the parts of a orgais are ut apart i order to asertai their positio, relatios,
structure and function.
- The four areas of anatomy include: (we will focus on 1, 2, and introduce 3)
1) Histology (microscopic features)
2) Gross anatomy (macroscopic features)
3) Neuroanatomy
4) Embryology
Fun Facts
- Smallest bone and muscle are found in your middle ear
- The average human brain weighs 3 pounds, a similar weight to the liver
- The stomach of a human adult can expand up to four times its size, holding nearly 2L
- From one end to the other, the human digestive tract measures over 29 feet long
- Your heart is roughly the size of your fist
- Humans can live with one lung (given limitations to physical activity)
Unity of Form and Function
- In anatomy, form and function are inextricably linked.
- The organization of a bodily structure is instrumental as it is the means by which a specific function
is carried out. This applies to all levels of organization, from small molecules and cells to organ
systems
- When a structure has proper form, it will have proper functioning. When the form is disrupted,
dysfunction may occur.
Section 2: Organization of the Human Body and Anatomical Nomenclature
Organization of the Human Body
- There are microscopic (small) and macroscopic (large) structures of the human body that can be
organized by fundamental levels, ranging from small molecules and cells to the organ system
- Chemical level: a molecule is a group of atoms bonded together
Molecule examples: sugar, water molecule, or a vitamin
Macromolecules are complex molecules, such as proteins and DNA molecules
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Organelles: complex, organized structures in the cytoplasm of a cell with uniqye
harateristi shapes; alled little orgas.
- Cellular level: Cells are the smallest living structure and are formed from atoms and molecules
- Tissue level: Tissues are similar cells that perform specialized functions
Four types of tissues: (1) epithelial tissue (covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities);
(2) connective tissue (protects, supports, and interconnects body parts and organs); (3)
muscle tissue (produces movement); and (4) nervous tissue (conducts impulses for internal
communication)
- Organ level: Organs are two or more tissues that work together to perform complex functions
Small intestine exhibits all four tissue types
- Organ system level: The organ system level consists of related organs that work together to
coordinate activities and achieve a common function
E.g.: organs of the respiratory system (nose, pharynx, and trachea) collaborate to clean,
warm, humidify, and conduct air from the atmosphere to the gas exchange surfaces in the
lungs
- Organismal level: All body systems function interdependently in a single living human.
Body Division
- Body can be organized into two main regions:
- (1) Axial: the axial forms the main vertical axis of the body, and includes the head, neck, and trunk.
- Appendicular: the appendicular regions includes the limbs or appendages that attach to the axis
Characteristics of Living Things
- Organization: all organisms exhibit a complex structure and order. As mentioned earlier in this
section, the human body has several increasingly complex levels of organization.
- Metabolism: All organisms carry out various chemical reactions, collectively termed metabolism.
These chemical reactions include breaking down ingested nutrients into digestible particles, using
the cells' own energy to perform certain functions, and contracting and relaxing muscles to move
the body. Metabolic activities such as ingesting nutrients and expelling wastes enable the body to
continue acquiring the energy needed for life's activities.
- Growth and Development: During their lifetime, organisms assimilate materials from their
environment and exhibit increased size (growth) and increased specialization as related to form and
function (development). As the human body grows in size, structures such as the brain become
more complex and sophisticated.
- Responsiveness: All organisms sense and respond to changes in their internal or external
environment.
- Adaptation: Over a period of time, an organism may alter an anatomic structure, physiologic
process, or behavioral trait to increase its expected long-term reproductive success, such as a
darkening of skin pigmentation in the equatorial region due to an increase in sun exposure.
- Regulation: Control and regulatory mechanisms within an organism maintain a consistent internal
environment, a state called homeostasis
- Reproduction: All organisms produce new cells for growth, maintenance, and repair. In addition, an
organism produces sex cells (called gametes) that, under the right conditions, have the ability to
develop into a new living organism
Organ Systems
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version