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ANAT 100- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 32 pages long!)


Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 100
Professor
Leslie W Mac Kenzie
Study Guide
Final

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Queen's
ANAT 100
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Module 9: Respiratory System
Section 1: Respiratory Overview and Function
Sequence that allows the body to breathe and acquire oxygen from air (necessary component of
metabolic function allowing cells to survive)
Complex system made up of many organs contributing to conduction of air to/from lungs and gas
exchange within lungs
Breathing: 2 cyclic phases
1. Inspiration (inhalation) draws O2 rich air into lungs
2. Expiration (exhalation) forces O2 poor air out of lungs
Functions:
Gas exchange:
o Movement of gases across membranes
o External respiration exchange of gases between air and blood
o Inspired O2 moves across cellular membranes of alveolus of the lung and its associated
capillaries into blood; waste CO2 moves in opposite direction and out of body through
expiration
o Internal respiration exchanges gases (O2, CO2) between blood and cells of body
Gas conditioning:
o Gases entering lungs need to be warmed/cleansed to prevent damage
o Occur sin nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses where air is swirled around
warmed/humidified/cleansed of particulate matter via contact with mucosal lining of
respiratory epithelium
Sound production:
o Occurs by forceful expiration of air through the vocal cords in the larynx causing them to
vibrate
o Different tensions of vocal cords different sounds with help from teeth/lips/tongue
Olfaction:
o Olfactory epithelium covers top of nasal cavity (where receptors for sense of smell are)
o When air is inhaled into nasal cavity, airborne molecules dissolve in mucus lining cavity
and stimulate receptors signals travel to brain through olfactory nerve (CN1) sense
of smell
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Defense:
o Many airborne molecules and microbes infections/disease
o Coarse nostril hairs, ciliated cells of respiratory epithelium, and mucus help trap
particles/microorganisms from entering nose and respiratory system
Respiratory tract epithelium (RTE):
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium all cells are attached to the basal lamina but only
some reach the surface
o Apical surface of epithelium is covered in cilia (increases surface area for conditioning
air) traps inhaled particles/microorganisms caught in mucus and sweeps them back up
the respiratory tract and out nose/mouth
Goblet mucus cells interspersed throughout pseudostratified epithelium
o Produce mucus light staining form protective layer over epithelium and traps
particulate matter/microorganisms
o Provides moisture to humidify air before it reaches lungs
Regions of the respiratory system:
Conducting region functions to transfer/conduct inhaled air from the outside world lung
tissue, and conducts air from lungs outside world
o Where humidification/trapping of debris takes place
o No O2 absorbed into blood here because walls of organs are too thick
o Structures
Nose/nasal cavity
Paranasal sinuses
Pharynx, larynx
Trachea
Primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi
Terminal bronchioles
Respiratory region functions to transfer gases between lungs and pulmonary capillaries
o Terminal structures within lungs with walls thin enough to facilitate movement of gases
from air to/from blood
o Structures
Respiratory bronchioles
Alveolar ducts and sacs
Alveoli
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