C c+r b o n s uq +s o i fo u nd [it + (cid:713) pem s q. Carcv yl j"r) i h h s q. Al 1 h ( 5 0 i 9) nmnt i l i y w h a w m l ?rjh m w r 2 m , s q l l i. Gluconeogenesis (lactate, glucogenic amino acids - alanine, glycerol) What? synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors. Tissue need glucose as an energy source. Kidney cortex (to a lesser extent) The blood glucose needs to be kept at 3. 5-5. 5 mm; otherwise you get a coma! ! Precursors either arise from exercise or energy stores. Glucogenic amino acids are derived from protein catabolism. Glycerol enters the pathway further down (from fat) Pyruvate requires two steps to return to pep. In glycolysis, there are the enzymes hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1 and pyruvate kinase. These are replaced in gluconeogeneis by glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6- bisphosphatase-1, pyruvate carboxylase/ pep carboxylase!