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BIOL 102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Genomic Imprinting, Dna Gyrase, Zygosity

by Kate

Course Code
BIOL 102
Wayne Snedden
Study Guide

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BIOL 102 Exam Notes
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Biology
Biology- the study of living organisms, divided into many
specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology,
anatomy, behaviour, origin, and distribution
Taxonomy- the science of naming and classifying organisms
Binomial nomenclature- two part name (Genus specie)
Did King Philip Come Over For Good Soup?
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Specie
Prokaryotic- no nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles
- Bacteria (Ex. Eubacteria)
- Archaea (Ex. Archaebacteria, Extremophiles)
Eukaryotic- contain nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
- Eukarya (Ex. Kingdoms: Animalia, Fungi, Plantae, Protista)
Homeostasis- metabolic processes need to be regulated in order to maintain a balanced internal state
Reproduction- passing on genetic material
- Asexual OR sexual reproduction
- Horizontal Gene transfer- genes are passed without sexual reproduction
- Vertical descent with mutation- natural selection (population of organisms evolve from one
generation to the next)
Central Dogma
- Genetic material, DNA, provides a dynamic plan for sustaining life
- DNA RNA Protein
The Scientific Method
1. Make an observation
2. Ask a question
3. Form a hypothesis (cannot be PROVEN)
4. Conduct an experiment
5. Accept or reject hypothesis
6. Make theory (a proposed explanation that is widely accepted with much experimental support
Cell- smallest unit
that can perform
life functions
Tissue Organ
Organ System
Population- group
of same species
Community- group
of many species
Ecosystem- Com.
interacting w/
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Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis to Life
Elements- substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical rxns and
still maintain their properties
Atom- the smallest portion of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element
- Ion: Change in electrons
- Isotope: change in neutrons
Chemical compound- when atoms of two or more different elements combine in a fixed ratio
Molecule- smallest particle of an ionic or covalently bonded element
Covalent bond- biomolecules (polar or non-polar)
- C (most abundant), H, O, N, P, S (Least abundant)
Ionic bond- salts; attraction between an anion and cation
Hydrogen bonds- important in protein structure, properties of water, and DNA (between bases)
Intermolecular forces- after ability of substances to pass through the plasma membrane
- Important in protein folding and protein interaction
- Between molecules
- Intra- within molecule
- Polar covalent bonds
- Adhesive- water sticking to sides of a burret
- Cohesive- water sticking to other water molecules
Hydrophilic- readily dissolve in water
Hydrophobic- do not readily dissolve in water
Amphipathic- have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions
Acid- dissociates in solution to yield H+ and an anion
Base- dissociates in solution to yield OH- and a cation
Buffers- mixture of acid and CB that can accept or donate [H+] as needed to resist pH change
- Saliva
- Blood
- Digestive tract
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Chapter 3: Organic Compounds
- A compound composed of a backbone made up of carbon atoms (hydrocarbons)
o 4 valence electrons
o 4 covalent bonds
o Lots of shapes
o Lots of functions
- Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different
o Structural isomers: aq difference in the covalent arrangement of the atoms
o Stereoisomers
Geometric isomers: identical arrangement of covalent bonds, but they differ in
the special arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms (glucose & fructose)
Enantiomers: molecules that are mirror images of one another (cannot overlap)
Functional Groups
- Group of atoms that confers distinctive properties on an organic molecule to which it is attached
Ex. Alcohol (OH), amine (NH2), carboxylic acid (COOH)
- Molecules built from repeating subunits of the same general type called monomers
- Broken by hydrolysis: to break with water
- Joined by condensation: combined covalently through removal of water molecule
Carbohydrates (sugar)
- Hdated ao
- Contains C, H, and O in a ration of 1C:2H:1O
- Important for fuel and structural materials of the cell
Ex. Cellular respiration
- Monosaccharides- simple sugar (glucose, fructose, galactose)
- Disaccharides- two monosaccharides units joined by a glycosidic bond
o Bond formed by dehydration rxn and broken by hydrolysis
Ex. Lactose, sucrose, and maltose
- Polysaccharides- macromolecule consisting of repeating units of sugars
o Used for energy storage or structural support in cells
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