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Study Guide

[BIOL 102] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (46 pages long)

by Kate

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 102
Professor
Wayne Snedden
Study Guide
Final

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Queen's
BIOL 102
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1
BIOL 102 Exam Notes
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Biology
Biology- the study of living organisms, divided into many
specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology,
anatomy, behaviour, origin, and distribution
Taxonomy- the science of naming and classifying organisms
Binomial nomenclature- two part name (Genus specie)
Did King Philip Come Over For Good Soup?
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Specie
Prokaryotic- no nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles
- Bacteria (Ex. Eubacteria)
- Archaea (Ex. Archaebacteria, Extremophiles)
Eukaryotic- contain nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
- Eukarya (Ex. Kingdoms: Animalia, Fungi, Plantae, Protista)
Homeostasis- metabolic processes need to be regulated in order to maintain a balanced internal state
Reproduction- passing on genetic material
- Asexual OR sexual reproduction
- Horizontal Gene transfer- genes are passed without sexual reproduction
- Vertical descent with mutation- natural selection (population of organisms evolve from one
generation to the next)
Central Dogma
- Genetic material, DNA, provides a dynamic plan for sustaining life
- DNA RNA Protein
The Scientific Method
1. Make an observation
2. Ask a question
3. Form a hypothesis (cannot be PROVEN)
4. Conduct an experiment
5. Accept or reject hypothesis
6. Make theory (a proposed explanation that is widely accepted with much experimental support
(STILL NOT A FACT)
Atom
Molecule
Cell- smallest unit
that can perform
life functions
Tissue Organ
Organ System
Organism
Population- group
of same species
Community- group
of many species
Ecosystem- Com.
interacting w/
environment
Biomes
Biosphere
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Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis to Life
Elements- substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical rxns and
still maintain their properties
Atom- the smallest portion of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element
- Ion: Change in electrons
- Isotope: change in neutrons
Chemical compound- when atoms of two or more different elements combine in a fixed ratio
Molecule- smallest particle of an ionic or covalently bonded element
Covalent bond- biomolecules (polar or non-polar)
- C (most abundant), H, O, N, P, S (Least abundant)
Ionic bond- salts; attraction between an anion and cation
Hydrogen bonds- important in protein structure, properties of water, and DNA (between bases)
Intermolecular forces- after ability of substances to pass through the plasma membrane
- Important in protein folding and protein interaction
- Between molecules
- Intra- within molecule
Water
- Polar covalent bonds
- Adhesive- water sticking to sides of a burret
- Cohesive- water sticking to other water molecules
Hydrophilic- readily dissolve in water
Hydrophobic- do not readily dissolve in water
Amphipathic- have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions
Acid- dissociates in solution to yield H+ and an anion
Base- dissociates in solution to yield OH- and a cation
Buffers- mixture of acid and CB that can accept or donate [H+] as needed to resist pH change
- Saliva
- Blood
- Digestive tract
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