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BIOL 102
Wayne Snedden

Chapter 1 Domains Bacteria – Archea ­ Eukarya  7 Characteristics Common to Life Cells and organization, Homeostasis, Energy use and metabolism, Response to  environment, Growth and development, Reproduction, Evolution Organization Levels Atoms  ▯molecules  ▯cells  ▯tissues  ▯organs  ▯organ system  ▯organism  ▯species  ▯ population  ▯community  ▯ecosystem  ▯biosphere Evolutionary Change Vertical descent (mutations): new species evolve from pre­existing species through  accumulation of mutations Horizontal gene transfer: transfer of genes between different species ­most common in bacteria Structure determines function Central Dogma DNA  ▯transcription ▯ NA  ▯translation  ▯Protein Scientific Theory 1. Make an observation 2. Ask a question 3. Form a hypothesis 4. Conduct experiment 5. Reject or accept hypothesis Hypothesis vs Theory Hypothesis: testable idea, proposition based on previous experiments Theory: well supported, monitored over centuries, always corrected and updated, allow  us to make predictions regarding natural world Chapter 2 Bonding Non­covalent bonds: H bonding, van der waals, ionic bonds Isotopes differ in number of neutrons Radioisotopes emit subatomic particles in order to decay (lose energy) ­used for diagnosis and treatment of cancer Covalent bond  ▯equal sharing of electrons Polar covalent  ▯unequal sharing of electrons Van der waal forces are individually weak but collectively strong ­ion­dipole, dipole­dipole, hydrogen bonding (strongest), London (weakest) Water ▯excellent solvent (cause its polar) ­H and O atoms held together through polar covalent bonds ­Hydrogen bonding accounts for the cohesive and adhesive properties of water ­­adhesive: water sticks to the side of a burret ­­cohesive: water sticks to other water molecules When water vaporizes bonds between water molecules are broken Chapter 3­ Organic Molecules (made up of carbon) Carbon can form nonpolar and polar bonds  Isomers Identical molecular formula but different structures and characteristics, cells can  distinguish between isomers: usually only one form is biologically active ­structural: same atoms in different bonding relationships stereoisomers: identical bonding relationships, spatial positions differ ­geometric: positioning around double bond ­enantiomers: mirror image of another molecule Polymers are made through dehydration reactions Carbohydrates CHO in 1:2:1 ratio  ▯C atoms often linked to H atom and OH group Monosaccharides: monomer of carbohydrates  ­can be ring or linear but is ring in aqueous solution Disaccharides: two monosaccharides linked via glycosidic bond  ­central “O” covalently bonded to two “C”s  Polysaccharides: many monosaccharides ­energy storage: starch: moderate (plants) and glycogen: highly branched (animals) ­structural role: cellulose: not branched (plants), chitin (animals) Lipids Composed mostly HC: nonpolar (insoluble­ soluble in nonpolar) ­ester bonds 1. Fats  ­formed by bonding glycerol and three fatty acids (via dehydration) ­important for energy storage (1g fat stores twice as much energy as 1g glycogen) Fatty Acids  ­saturated: carbons linked by only single bongs  ­unsaturated: contain one or more double bond ­­kinks in molecule cause it to stay in liquid form ­­less packed = lower melting point 2. Phospholipids  ­glycerol, 2 fatty acids and phosphate group ­amphipathic molecule: polar head and nonpolar tail 3. Steroids ­four interconnected rings of carbon atoms ­usually not water soluble ex. cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone  Proteins ­CHONS ­amino acids are the monomers ­side chain determines structure and function TABLE 3.2 Proteins joined by dehydration reaction -forms peptide bond Structure Primary: sequence ofAA determined by gene Secondary: alpha helices (flexibility), beta sheets (strength) ▯ due to H bonding Tertiary: 3D shape, determined by 4 factors 1. H bonding▯ between R groups 2. Ionic interactions▯ between positive and negative R groups 3. Hydrophobic interactions▯ nonpolar R groups excluded by water 4. Disulfide bridges▯ covalent bonds between S atoms of 2 cysteines in same chain 5. Van der waals forces▯ attractive forces between atoms at optimal distances Quaternary: 2 or more polypeptides coming together -structure determined by same factors as tertiary Domain: portions in proteins that have distinct structure and function -specific amino acid sequences often duplicated during evolution Nucleic Acids Responsible for storage, expression and transmission of genetic information ­monomer: nucleotide (phosphate group, 5C sugar and nitrogenous base) ­sugar phosphate backbone ­purines: adenine and guanine (double ringed) ­pyrimidines: thymine, cytoseine, uracil (single ringed) ­nucleotides joined together via phosphodiester linkage  DNA RNA Deoxyribose sugar Ribose sugar Stores genetic info Decodes genetic info Thymine Uracil 1 form mRNA, tRNA, rRNA Chapter 4­ Cell Theory Light microscope: uses light, resolution to 2micrometers  Electron Microscope: electron beam, resolution to 2 nm, requires heavy metal coat ­TEM (transmission electron micrograph): cuts particle in half ­SEM (scanning electron micrograph): surface of particle Confocal images­ power of fluorescent microscopy and software Typical Bacteria Cell Plasma membrane: barrier Cytoplasm: contain inside the plasma membrane barrier (site of metabolism) Nucleoid: genetic material is found here Ribosomes: protein synthesis Pili: allow bacteria to attach to surfaces and each other Animal Plant Plasma membrane + extracellular matrix Plasma membrane and cell wall Lack plastids Contain plastids Small vacuoles Large vacuoles Have centrioles No centrioles Proteome DNA is identical in all cells but they have different proteomes ­proteome determines cell structure and function ­proteomes are effect by: gene regulation, amount, amino acid sequence Organelles Cytosol: gooey environment that surrounds all the organelles ­central coordinating region for metabol
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