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BIOL 103 Final: BIOL 103 COMPLETE Lecture Notes - Dr. Walker

Course Code
BIOL 103
Virginia K Walker
Study Guide

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(WINTER 2017)

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BIOLOGY 103 January 9th, 2017
Interested in how organisms survive freeze, thawing and freezing but is not interested in
metazoans, but in trees, grasses and insects survival in this event.
o Collected samples of organisms to look for their adaptations and genes that are
responsible for them north of Great Slave Lake.
o In Brine Lakes in BC, Walker looked at the microorganism survival and published
a paper on the genes found in them, which caught the attention of the NASA funded
labs at MIT and she now collaborates with them because the organisms survived
on magnesium mineral salts (might be the environment on Mars).
o Developing sustainably fisheries in Nunavut by doing genomic analysis and
genetics and some of these fish have anti-freeze proteins.
o Researches pollutants on organisms such as nanoparticles found on clothing,
fridges and washing machines and they inhibit microorganisms, but experiments
were done with treating mice fetuses and they found skeletal defects.
Two categories of organisms based on their mode of obtaining nutrients:
o Autotrophs; auto means self and troph means nutrition.
These organisms harvest light and are found in deep seas near bents where
they use chemical energy, they store this energy in carbon compounds.
They can exist in an inorganic environments but they manufacture organic
compounds so we called them primary producers
eg. CO2 + H2O organic compounds ie. glucose.
What is an example of an autotroph? Plants such as dandelions.
o Heterotrophs; hetero means other and troph means nutrition.
These organisms in contrast need complex nutrients from their environment
by eating other organisms and they are found at other trophic levels so they
aren’t primary producers.
What is an example of a heterotroph? A wolf.
If you are at a higher trophic level, you need to get complex nutrients into a
simpler form to be taken up by cells. This process is called digestion.
Heterotrophs have evolved strategies for obtaining food
i-Clicker Questions:
o Are all heterotrophs animals? No. Is all non-animal life autotrophic? No.
Have you ever opened the fridge and seen mold on bread?
o Bread is made of complex polysaccharides (starch) but how does the bread mold
digest this? Starch is large and it cannot take the starch in through its membranes
so it is going to have to digest it.
Mold releases enzymes into the bread so that the starch is digested which is
called extracellular digestion conversion from polysaccharides to simpler
sugars is occurring in the bread not the bread mold. From here the simpler
sugars can be absorbed by the bread mold.

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Fungi can get nutrients from dead organic matter but can they get it nutrients from living
animals as well?
o Athletes Foot; can be parasitic; it has these hyphae of fungal branches that are put
into the feet and they release enzymes into your feet for digestion to take place
also known as extracellular digestion.
Dactylella dreschsleri is a fungus that has sticky knobs along the hyphae that can hold
nematode worms.
o Nematode worms are found under microscope in liquids like vinegar.
University of Calgary; chromosome mechanics experiments with genetic
analysis; meetings with other geneticists and some students from University
of Manitoba studying Nematodes.
Walker was envious because they
weren’t doing a lot of lab work, they
would go with Dr. Samoyloff to various
bars in Southern Manitoba for beers and
ask the barkeeper if they could have the
coasters what they wanted.
They would take these back to the lab
and extract the Nematode worms and
they would do biochemical genetic
analysis on the worms and how they
metabolized ethanol.
o Arthrobotrys dactyloides or “Cowboy fungi” make lassos and the Nematodes swim
into them, the fungi then expands the lassos and capture the Nematodes.
Then they put hyphal branches
into the worm producing
digestive enzymes and they eat
the Nematode from the inside
out, absorbing all the nutrients.
These fungi are examples of
predatory fungi.
The fungi will only make lassos
if there are Nematode worms in
the waters surrounding them or
you can grind up Nematode
worms and put a drop of
Nematode soup in the water and
they will also produce the lassos.
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