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Key Terms LEC 2-8.docx

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BIOL 202
Chris Moyes

Lec 2 Key Terms : Diploblasts ( two layers formed during embryonic development) and triploblasts( three layers formed during embryonic development), Protostomes ( mouth formed from the blastocyst during embryonic development) and deuterostomes (Anus formed from the blastocyst during embryonic development); lochotrophozoans (the combination of two groups: 1) those with the presene of small fans of ciliated tentecles around the mouth and those with the presence of rings of cilia around the body.) and ecdysozoans( the ability to molt) ; acoelomates ( organisms without coeloms) , pseudocoelomates (organism without true coeloms, their coelom is formed between mesoderm and endoderm. ), and coelomates (organism with cavities within the mesoderm); schizocoelous ( splitting of the mesoderm) and enterocoelous ( folding of the mesoderm); ectoderm(outermost layer of cells), mesoderm( middle layer of cells, coelom forms within this layer), endoderm( inner most layer of cells); lophophore( organism with fans of ciliated tentacles around the mouth), trochophore( organism with rings of cilia around the larva) Lec 3 Key Terms: Synapomorphy( a trait that is shared by two or more taxa and their most common ancestor) Apomorphy( A derived trait shared among member of a clade) Pleisomorphy( an ancestral trait) Homoplasy( traits that are similar due to convergent evolution) Polyphyly( a group made up of multiple phyla) Monophyly ( a group made up of one phyla) Collagen ( a part of the flesh and connective tissues of animals, not found in protists), chitin( the material that composes the cell walls of fungi, protists do not possess this) , cilia(slender projections from a much larger cell body, used for many different functions including increasing SA and locomotion) , flagella( a whip like appendage that protrudes from the cell body , primarily used for locomotion) , pseudopodia(projections from the cell body that can extend and contract, used for locomotion) , cytopharynyx ( a tube like opening , sort of a mouth, found in ciliate) , cytopyge ( an opening in the membrane , used an anus to release empty vacuoles in protozoa), pellicle( microtubule based network under neath the plasma membrane), cytostome( a feeding groove in excavata, that brings in suspended food particles directed by a posterior flagellum), lobopodia(moving by amoeboid movement) , filopodia( thin pseudopodia found in the Rhizaria), axopodia( filopodia supported by microtubules in the Rhizaria), trichocysts( long , thin structure that can be ejected in response to certain stimuli as a defense mechanism), chemoorganitrophic( an organism that requires organis substrates to get its carbon and produces energy by oxio-reduction of an organic compound), autotrophic ( consumes CO2 as its source of carbon to produce sugars) , binary fission, schizogony( multiple binary fission) , haploid, diploid, meiosis, bioluminescence( production and emission of light by a living organism) Lec 4 Key Terms: protostome, deuterostome, diploblast, triploblast, coelomate, acoelomate, pseudoceolmate, bilateral symmetry( a virtual plane could divide the organism into two mirror images ) , radial symmetry( any plane passing oral-aboral divides the organism into mirror images), extracellular space, extracellular matrix( provides structural support to the animals cells as well as other important functions) , adhesion proteins( provide adhesion between cells, create barriers across cells , permit communications between cells and anchor cells to a substrate), cadherins( a type of cell adhesion protein that can act as a point of adhesion to other cells , used for signaling, a method of prey capture) , + + collagen, Na K ATPase( Allows for animal cells to maintain a constant cell volume and osmotic balance), blastopore( an opening into the archenteron during the embryonic stages of development) , blastocoel ( fluid-filled central region of a blastocyst), colonial hypothesis( multicellularity began by aggregation, this suggests that the first animals would be radially symmetrically) , syncitial hypothesis ( multicellularity began by cells failing to separate following cell division, suggests that first animals be bilaterally symmetrical) Lec 5 Key Terms: pinacocytes( Thin elastic layer that can expand and contract to control the size of a sponge, can also produce collag
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