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COMPREHENSIVE Review Lecture 10 to 16

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BIOL 202
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Biology 202 : Diversity of Life II Review: Lectures 10-16 Lecture 10 & 11: Molluscs - Significance: 1) Food (mussels, clams, squid , snails & scallops), 2) Intermidiated host for parasites, 3) Ornamentation ( pearls), 4) Medical research ( giant squid axon ), 5) Invasive species ( zebra mussels) - Bivalvia , Gastropods, & Cephalopoda. - General Features : Bilateral symmetry, protostomes with a schizocoelous coelom, 2 part body ( head-foot & visceral mass), mantle ( with CaCO3 shell), Radula, diverse distribution, Reproduction - Gastropods - Can live in diverse conditions: Marine, freshwater and terrestrial habits. - Digestion: uses radula to scrape foods off the substrate, can also abrade hard surfaces ( rock) - Open circulatory system with 2 chambered hearts ( Not as good at delivering O2 to organs, only can generate low pressure) 2 chambered hearts = 1 chamber is stretchy and good at taking in fluid, 2 chamber is more muscular and better at pumping blood to the body. - Body Plan Specializations: Torsion of the body ( rotation of the shell so that mantle cavity and anus are now forward facing) & flattened foot ( often ciliated). - Respiration: Some aquatic gastropods breathe across skin, some have gills ( within mantle cavity) and land snails possess lungs ( with reduced or eliminated gills) . - Endosymbiosis: Select gastropods show intriguing abilities to consume and rely upon other organisms, cells and organelles. ( One takes on chloroplasts and can use those for nutiriton) - Environmental Tolerance : Remarkable tolerance to environmental stressers ( dehydration), they strongly reduce their metabolic rate( lipid oxidation for energy) and adapt methods of water retention ( including physical , cocoons , and metabolic , urea/uric acid accumulation.) - Bivalves - Body Plan: laterally compressed ( shells ( also called valves ) are on the sides. - Circulation & Respiration : open circulatory system , 2 auricles, 1 ventricle. Gills protected in mantle cavity , with water directed over the surface by siphons. - Digestion: no radula, filter feeders to remove particulates from water flowing over gills ( one siphon faces into current to let water in , and one the opposite direction for exhaust ) - Adductor muscles have a specialized muscle protein that allows the muscle to remain contracted without expending any extra energy. - Mantle is filled with glycogen , and the rest of the body mass is mostly made up of lipids, used as food storages for when they have to remain closed for a long time. - Locomotion & musculature: most use foot to dig, flip or walk but some can use jet propulsion. Muscle include adductors, to close the shell quickly, and catch muscles to keep it closed. - Environmental Tolerance: able to survive, anoxia( high levels of glycogen in blood allows for glycolysis without oxygen), osmotic stress ( produce or breakdown organi solutes in an effort to control osmolarity of their tissues and cells) and freezing ( can be freeze- tolerant, producing cryprptectants) - As food: very common food, but pose issues due to bacterial contamination, pesticide bioaccumulation and PSP ( paralytic shellfish poisoning) - Cephalopods - Body Plan: Most complex molluscs with tentacles reduced or absent shell. ( except Nautilis) - Feeding and Digestion: Active predators with jaws and radula. - Locomotion : slow movement uses fins and tentacles, rapid movement uses jet propulsion . - Nervous System : large brains … visual predators, eyes are superficially similar to vertebrate eyes, cryptic coloration under neuronal control. Lecture 12: Anthropods - Diverstiy: Present in wide range of environments , were among first animals to invade land ( and did so twice or three times independently), Sublime adaptive innovations for a terrestrial life - Importance: Pollination ( bees, lepidopterans) , Food ( for humans and other species), Disease Vectors, Pests of Agriculture, Pest management, Model Organims. - Body Plan: Metamerism and Tagmatization, Coelom reduced to cavity around gonads, Chitinous exoskeleton ( support for muscle attachment, prevents desiccation and provides protection), Growth facilitated by ecdysis ( Molting) , paired jointed appendages. - Hinges and seams formed to allow motion to occur without breaking the exoskeleton, these are not joints like in human bodies, but segments when the shell can bend. - Cuticle separates from epithelial cells ( hypodermis), New cuticle synthesized expansion helps break the old cuticle allow the animal to escape. - Metamorphosis: Seperates from old exoskeleton, synthesize new exoskeleton, aids in dispersal. Quantum jumps in size ( not continuous growth) - Adaption to different resources and microhabitats during different stages of life. - General Features: Ventral Nervous system, open circulatory system with blood draining into sinus, breathes by gills( aquatic) book lungs ( awuatic /terrestrial) or tachaeae(terrestrial), nitrogenous waste excreation depends on habitat, NH3 for aquatic uric acid for land. - Trilobites: All extinct, used to have oval flattened bodies, 3 segments, and lobed appendages - Arachnids - Carnivorous ( with poison glands and fangs ), One or more pairs of eyes and a variety of other sensory structures, excretion via coxal glands or Malpighian tubules, relatively impermeable exoskeleton, most are dioecious and oviparous - Repiration: Book lungs = mediate countercurrent exchange of O2 and CO2 between air and blood, Trachea = tubes running form the surface inward to deliver air deep to tissues - Acarina: Many disease caused by ticks and mites - Crustacea - Fusion of sensory and feeding tagamata: cephalothorax. Cephalization: - esophageal ganglia Supra – regulates sensory , Sub – regulates locomotion, Giant neurons trigger escape response, endocrine glads control metabolism, growth, ecdysis, and reproduction. - Brine Shrimp: Live in hypersaline lakes, when conditions deteriorate the females create eggs with thickened walls ( cyst) , with low metabolic rates allowing them to survive for years. When the adults emerge they undergo a mating frenzy for a short period of time - Daphnia: Phenotypic plasticity in response to predators, they can grow spikes if copepod predators are abundant( too make them too big to swallow). - Barnacles: Adults are sessile , living attached to the “bottom”. Inhabit intertidal zone, surving prolonged air exposure, monecious - Copepods: Sea lice are parasitic, they live attached to the side of fish feeding on mucous , epidermis , & blood. Major pest in aquatic agriculture. Lecture 13 & 14: Insects - Myriapods and insects are terrestrial anthropods that invaded land . 450 mya, Some insects secondarily returned to water. They all share – uniramous limbs trachea for breathing and Malpighian tubules for excretion. - Myriapod Diversity: Many impressive defence mechanisms: millipede repugnatorial glands secrete cyanide, centipedes have ve
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