Study Guides (248,518)
Canada (121,606)
Biology (423)
BIOL 202 (38)
All (4)
Final

COMPREHENSIVE Review Lecture 10 to 16

6 Pages
66 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 202
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Biology 202 : Diversity of Life II Review: Lectures 10-16 Lecture 10 & 11: Molluscs - Significance: 1) Food (mussels, clams, squid , snails & scallops), 2) Intermidiated host for parasites, 3) Ornamentation ( pearls), 4) Medical research ( giant squid axon ), 5) Invasive species ( zebra mussels) - Bivalvia , Gastropods, & Cephalopoda. - General Features : Bilateral symmetry, protostomes with a schizocoelous coelom, 2 part body ( head-foot & visceral mass), mantle ( with CaCO3 shell), Radula, diverse distribution, Reproduction - Gastropods - Can live in diverse conditions: Marine, freshwater and terrestrial habits. - Digestion: uses radula to scrape foods off the substrate, can also abrade hard surfaces ( rock) - Open circulatory system with 2 chambered hearts ( Not as good at delivering O2 to organs, only can generate low pressure) 2 chambered hearts = 1 chamber is stretchy and good at taking in fluid, 2 chamber is more muscular and better at pumping blood to the body. - Body Plan Specializations: Torsion of the body ( rotation of the shell so that mantle cavity and anus are now forward facing) & flattened foot ( often ciliated). - Respiration: Some aquatic gastropods breathe across skin, some have gills ( within mantle cavity) and land snails possess lungs ( with reduced or eliminated gills) . - Endosymbiosis: Select gastropods show intriguing abilities to consume and rely upon other organisms, cells and organelles. ( One takes on chloroplasts and can use those for nutiriton) - Environmental Tolerance : Remarkable tolerance to environmental stressers ( dehydration), they strongly reduce their metabolic rate( lipid oxidation for energy) and adapt methods of water retention ( including physical , cocoons , and metabolic , urea/uric acid accumulation.) - Bivalves - Body Plan: laterally compressed ( shells ( also called valves ) are on the sides. - Circulation & Respiration : open circulatory system , 2 auricles, 1 ventricle. Gills protected in mantle cavity , with water directed over the surface by siphons. - Digestion: no radula, filter feeders to remove particulates from water flowing over gills ( one siphon faces into current to let water in , and one the opposite direction for exhaust ) - Adductor muscles have a specialized muscle protein that allows the muscle to remain contracted without expending any extra energy. - Mantle is filled with glycogen , and the rest of the body mass is mostly made up of lipids, used as food storages for when they have to remain closed for a long time. - Locomotion & musculature: most use foot to dig, flip or walk but some can use jet propulsion. Muscle include adductors, to close the shell quickly, and catch muscles to keep it closed. - Environmental Tolerance: able to survive, anoxia( high levels of glycogen in blood allows for glycolysis without oxygen), osmotic stress ( produce or breakdown organi solutes in an effort to control osmolarity of their tissues and cells) and freezing ( can be freeze- tolerant, producing cryprptectants) - As food: very common food, but pose issues due to bacterial contamination, pesticide bioaccumulation and PSP ( paralytic shellfish poisoning) - Cephalopods - Body Plan: Most complex molluscs with tentacles reduced or absent shell. ( except Nautilis) - Feeding and Digestion: Active predators with jaws and radula. - Locomotion : slow movement uses fins and tentacles, rapid movement uses jet propulsion . - Nervous System : large brains … visual predators, eyes are superficially similar to vertebrate eyes, cryptic coloration under neuronal control. Lecture 12: Anthropods - Diverstiy: Present in wide range of environments , were among first animals to invade land ( and did so twice or three times independently), Sublime adaptive innovations for a terrestrial life - Importance: Pollination ( bees, lepidopterans) , Food ( for humans and other species), Disease Vectors, Pests of Agriculture, Pest management, Model Organims. - Body Plan: Metamerism and Tagmatization, Coelom reduced to cavity around gonads, Chitinous exoskeleton ( support for muscle attachment, prevents desiccation and provides protection), Growth facilitated by ecdysis ( Molting) , paired jointed appendages. - Hinges and seams formed to allow motion to occur without breaking the exoskeleton, these are not joints like in human bodies, but segments when the shell can bend. - Cuticle separates from epithelial cells ( hypodermis), New cuticle synthesized expansion helps break the old cuticle allow the animal to escape. - Metamorphosis: Seperates from old exoskeleton, synthesize new exoskeleton, aids in dispersal. Quantum jumps in size ( not continuous growth) - Adaption to different resources and microhabitats during different stages of life. - General Features: Ventral Nervous system, open circulatory system with blood draining into sinus, breathes by gills( aquatic) book lungs ( awuatic /terrestrial) or tachaeae(terrestrial), nitrogenous waste excreation depends on habitat, NH3 for aquatic uric acid for land. - Trilobites: All extinct, used to have oval flattened bodies, 3 segments, and lobed appendages - Arachnids - Carnivorous ( with poison glands and fangs ), One or more pairs of eyes and a variety of other sensory structures, excretion via coxal glands or Malpighian tubules, relatively impermeable exoskeleton, most are dioecious and oviparous - Repiration: Book lungs = mediate countercurrent exchange of O2 and CO2 between air and blood, Trachea = tubes running form the surface inward to deliver air deep to tissues - Acarina: Many disease caused by ticks and mites - Crustacea - Fusion of sensory and feeding tagamata: cephalothorax. Cephalization: - esophageal ganglia Supra – regulates sensory , Sub – regulates locomotion, Giant neurons trigger escape response, endocrine glads control metabolism, growth, ecdysis, and reproduction. - Brine Shrimp: Live in hypersaline lakes, when conditions deteriorate the females create eggs with thickened walls ( cyst) , with low metabolic rates allowing them to survive for years. When the adults emerge they undergo a mating frenzy for a short period of time - Daphnia: Phenotypic plasticity in response to predators, they can grow spikes if copepod predators are abundant( too make them too big to swallow). - Barnacles: Adults are sessile , living attached to the “bottom”. Inhabit intertidal zone, surving prolonged air exposure, monecious - Copepods: Sea lice are parasitic, they live attached to the side of fish feeding on mucous , epidermis , & blood. Major pest in aquatic agriculture. Lecture 13 & 14: Insects - Myriapods and insects are terrestrial anthropods that invaded land . 450 mya, Some insects secondarily returned to water. They all share – uniramous limbs trachea for breathing and Malpighian tubules for excretion. - Myriapod Diversity: Many impressive defence mechanisms: millipede repugnatorial glands secrete cyanide, centipedes have ve
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 202

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit