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302 quiz one review.docx

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Queen's University
BIOL 302
Laurene M Ratcliffe

Chapter 2 -Even when an organism can keep water inside low temperatures in water can be dangerous. Ice crystals can form puncturing and destroying living cells (leads to death or organ failure) -High temperature causes protein denaturing. Reduces the efficiency of biological process -Elaborate structures are required to store against gravity (requires woody tissues, availability to sweat or in amphibians lower the freezing point of water) -Uneven heating of the earth’s spherical surface by the sun and the tilt of the earth produce a predictable latitudinal variation -Average temperatures are lower and more seasonal at middle and high latitudes than near the equator. Heating of the earth’s surface and atmosphere drives circulation of the atmosphere and influences patterns of precipitation -Air mass from 30-equator+Hadley cells From 30 to 0 on bottom -Polar cell from 90-60 on bottom -Ferrel cell 30-60 on bottom Doldrums –no wind Corioles effect- in northern hemisphere causes deflection of winds to right in southern to left Climate diagrams -Explore relationship between the distribution of terrestrial vegetation and climate -10c is equivalent to 20mm of precipitation -Adequate moisture for plant growth exists when precipitation is above the temperature line -In tropical areas 10c=200mm Soil -Laterization- heavy rain breaks down clay and organic material leading to mineral leaching -O-horizons are found in soils where the plant material is primary aquatic (peat moss) -LFH are found in upland sites -Deep organic horizons are found with litter (bogs, fens) low decomp rates -A horizon contains minerals and organic decay from o-horizons. Rain leaches a->b -B-horizons contain minerals from A -C-horizons have weathered plant material and deep roots, under c is bedrock Tundra -Soilification moves soil down slopes, plats can photosynthesis nearly continuously Boreal -Wood and water covers 11% of land -50, 60 N lat -Winters longer than 6 months 200-600mm -Low fertile soils, thin and acidic, low evaporation rates Temperate Forests -Largest living organisms -30,55 lat, 650-3000mm Deciduous, moist four month growing season -Drought in summer, slightly acidic soil -Rich in organic matter Temperate grassland -Largest biome in North America, 300-1000mm -Droughts that can last several years -Basic, fertile organic matter in soil -Most critically endangered Mediterranean Woodland -Forest fires (40% soil loss), 30,40 lat -Dry summers, dense veg rich in oils -Low soil fertility -Typically evergreen Desert -20% lands surface, 30 lat -300mm, growing season 5 months -Low in organic matter with sand and rock, salt - Once the o horizon disappears it is hard to replace Tropical savannah -10,20 lat -Rains, intense lightening, fires -300-500mm -Low water permeable soil Tropical dry forest -Oscillating wet and dry seasons, 10-25 lat -5-6 month wet season, fertile soil Tropical rain forest -0, 2000-4000mm -26degress warm -Latentis soil (high in iron and aluminum) -Buttress roots -Epiphytes (plants growing in plants) Mountains -High to low elevation -Wetter higher up, well drained soil Chapter 3 Hydrological cycle-exchanges water among reservoirs Turnover time-time required for entire volume of a reservoir to be renewed (size/year) ocean takes 3100 years Structure Littoral zone-ris
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