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Midterm

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 302
Professor
Laurene M Ratcliffe
Semester
Fall

Description
LECTURE 1 What are the ecological consequences of variable photosynthetic strategies in plants?  Photosynthetically Active radiation o FIGURE 7.3 o Photosyntheitc active radiation diminishes substantially with passage through the passage through the canopy of a boreal forest o Boreal forests reflect about 10% of incoming PAR o The canopy absorbs 79% of PAR o Plants in the middle layers absorb an additional 7% of PAR o Low vegetation absorbs about 2% of PAR o Forest floor are only getting 2% of photosynthetic radiation  3 way to photosynthesize o C p3ants (ancestral pathway)  C3photosynthesis: the photosynthetic pathway used by most plants and all algae, in which the product of the initial reaction is phosphoglyceric acid, or PGA, a three-carbon acid  Most widespread (97% land plant species)  More abundant towards poles and up mountains (cooler temperatures)  Responsible for 75% tree growth  C3photosynthesize via the calvin cycle  FIGURE 7.4  Both the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis take place in the mesophyll cells of the leaves of3C plants  During C 3hotosynthesis, the enzyme RUBISCO combines CO a2d RuBP to form PGA, an organic acid containing three carbon atoms  The final products of photosynthesis are sugar molecules, which may be combined to form starch  Rubisco inhibited by O 2nd low affinity for CO 2  C3plants do best  Where CO i2 abundant (have low affinity for CO ) 2  Under moderate temperature (20-25C) and light levels (1/4 – 1/3 full sunlight)  With abundant water (because lose water quickly via transpiration) o C P4ants  C4photosynthesis: CO is2fixed in mesophyll cells by combining it with phosphoenol pyruvate, or PEP, to produce a four-carbon acid. Plants using C4photosynthesis are generally more drought tolerant than plants employing C 3 photosynthesis  Have evolved from C p3ants (discovered 1965)  Have C 3athway plus second pathway  Comprise only 3% of plant species (about 7500)  More abundant towards equator (warm temperatures)- grasses, sedges  Responsible for 25% plant growth but many key food species  Key difference starts in the difference with their leaf anatomy  C4more structurally organized, chlorophyll is lined up in bundle sheath cells. Rather than it being scattered, it is tightly bundled  C4separates the process into 2 separate locations  FIGURE 7.5  Light reactions of photosynthesis occur in the mesophyll and dark reactions in the bundle sheath cells in leaves of C4plants  In the mesophyll cells of leaves from C4plants, the PEP carboxylase combines PEP with CO to 2orm an organic acid containing four carbon atoms  The C acid diffuses to a bundle sheath cell, where it 4 breaks down to pyruvate and CO 2  RUBISCO combines the CO con2entrated in the bundle sheath cell by the breakdown of the C a4id with RuBP to form PGA  Pyruvate diffuses back to the bundle sheath cell to form PEP, starting the cycle over again  Because the enzyme PEP carboxylase has a high affinity for CO 2 C4plants need to open fewer stomata to take in sufficient CO2.  C4plants do best…  Under hot temperatures (optimum 30-35C) and high light levels (full sunlight)  Where CO i2 limited (have high affinity for CO )2  Can tolerate lower water levels as low transpiration  Recall C3 vs C4 plants  Compared to C3 plants, C4:  More efficient at low CO2  Don’t reach full photosynthetic capacity even at full sunlight  Produce more sugars and starches per unit leaf area  Profound ecological consequences of C4 pathway  Gets to a much higher rate of photosynthesis  C4 plants dominate in warmer latitudes o CAM photosynthesis  CAM photosynthesis=Crassuleacean Acid Metabolism (rarest form), a photosynthetic pathway largely limited to succulent plants in arid and semiarid environments, in which carbon fixation takes place at night, when lower temperatures reduce the rate of water loss during CO2uptake. The resulting four- carbon acids are stored until daylight, when they are broken down into pyruvate and CO .2  2 stages:  Fix carbon at night: CO2=malate  Complete photosynthesis next day  Optimum @35 degrees Celsius  FIGURE 7.6 o CAM plants open their stomata and take in CO at 2 night when temperatures are lower and humidity higher o CAM plants close their stomata during the day when temperatures are high and humidity low o At night CAM plants use PEP carboxylase to combine PEP with CO to2form four carbon organic acids o C a4ids synthesized at night break down during the day to pyruvate and CO 2 o RUBISCO combines the CO conce2trated in the mesophyll cell by the breakdown of the C a4id with RuBP to form PGA o Pyruvate built up during the day is converted to PEP, which combines with CO the next night, 2 starting the daily cycle over again Energy and Nutrients (Chapter 7) Outline A) Trophic Diversity  FIGURE 7.2, trophic diversity across systems o A plot of trophic diversity across the major groups of organisms show highest trophic diversity among the prokaryotic bacteria and archea  Prokaryotes draw on a greater variety of energy sources than the eukaryotes  Protists include many heterotrophic and photosynthetic species  Plants are mainly photosynthetic, with a few heterotrophic species  All fungi and animals are heterotrophic  Chemical Autotrophy, o Chemosynthetic- refers to autotrophs that use inorganic materials as a source of carbon and energy o FIGURE 7.15: Hydrogen sulfide as an energy source for chemoautotrophic bacteria in the deep sea  Cold, oxygen bearing seawater mixes with warm water carrying hydrogen sulfide H S2 from a hydrothermal vent  A giant tube worm takes up O an2 H S w2th the aid of hemoglobin, which gives the worm its bright red colour  Chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the tissues of the worm can make up to 60% of the worm’s total mass  Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria oxidize H 2 to elemental sulfur, an energy-yielding reaction  The energy released is used to synthesize organic molecules, using CO 2s a source of carbon o Chemical Autotrophy: Nitrifying Bacteria, FIGURE 7.16, terrestrial example  Ammonium as an energy source for chemoautotrophic bacteria in soil  Nitrifying bacteria such as Nitrosomonas spp. are common chemoautotrophs living in soils are aquatic environments + -  Ammonium (NH ) is4oxidized into nitrate (NO 2 ), yielding energy in the process  Energy is released by oxidation of ammonium is used to synthesize organic molecules, using CO 2 as a source of carbon  2NH +43O > 22O + 4H 2H O + Energ2  What do C:N ratios tell us about heterotrophs, FIGURE 7.7 o On average, the ration of carbon to nitrogen is much higher in terrestrial plants than in other major groups of organisms  High C:N ratios show that plants are relatively rich in carbon and poor in nitrogen  Low C:N ratios show that animals, fungi, and bacteria are relatively rich in nitrogen  Nutrient challenges facing Herbivores o High C:N ratios in plant foods o Inedible tissues (cellulose, lignin) o Adaptions: ruminants, bulk feeders (have to consume a huge volume of plant material everyday)  Substantial individual variation in diets of carnivores o FIGURE 7.13  A) Mammal species from central Saskatchewan differ greatly in their isotopic signatures  Different species of mammals exhibit unique isotopic signatures  B) There is substantial variation in isotopic signatures among individual wolves, even within single locations in and around Prince Albert Park and La Ronge, Saskatchewan  Each symbol represents the signature of a single wolf  The ovals represent the range in signatures of all wolves sampled in a single location o Extremely variable diet, even among wolves in same pack B) Why energy and nutrient intake are rate-limited:  Photosynthetic Response Curve o FIGURE 7.18  A theoretical photosynthetic response curve  Pmax is the maximum rate of photosynthesis  As photosynthetic flux density increases, the rate of photosynthesis increases until it levels off at some maximum rate  Isats the light intensity at which the photosynthetic system is saturated  The light compensation point (LCP) is the light intensity at which photosynthesis=respiration  Linear response as light increases, and then it asymptotes, there is a rate limitation of photosynthesis of which the plant cannot photosynthesize any faster  LCP, when rate of photosynthesis= rate of respiration o Food Density and Animal Function Response  FIGURE 7.21, Three Theoretical response curves  Type 1: Linear increase in food uptake with prey density until maximum rate  Type 2: initially linear increase, then slowed rate of increase before leveling off  Type 3: S-shaped: slow rate of increase initially, then faster until maximum level (search image, involves behavioral learning)  The three curves differ mainly in how food intake by the consumer changes at low food densities  All three curves level off to high prey density C) The Marginal Value Theorem  Optimal Time to feed in a patch: the marginal value theorem o Figure 7.24  A graphical representation of the marginal value theorem. The x-axis represents the total time spent foraging, which includes both travel to a patch and time spent in a patch. The y-axis represent the total amount of energy gained by the organism as a function of time spent foraging.  A) The rate of energy gain can be calculated as the slop of G/T. This value is maximized at the point where a line drawn from the origin is tangential to the gain curve. The optimal time to spend in a patch is determined by the value of the x-axis directly below the point of intersection  The slopes of these lines represent energy gain per unit time  The red line represents the total energy gained by an organism as it forages in a patch  The “optimal: amount of time to spend in a patch id the one that maximizes energy gain per unit time across a landscape of patched. This is seen here in blue, while “sub-optimal” leaving times are shown in red  B) Here we see two possible scenarios, short travel times (purple) and longer travel time (red). The optimal foraging strategy is to spend less time is a single patch when travel times are shorter.  Here, the purple curve represents a scenario with shorter travel times among patches than that described by the red curve  The marginal value theorem predicts organisms should spend more time in patches where there is a longer travel time among patches LECTURE 2 Lecture 11 & 12- Life Histories (Read M & C Chapter 9, p 224-243 & 246-251) Life History- all behaviour and physiological responses to the environment to improve reproductive success and increase survival -the ideal organism should  Reproduce right after birth  Produce many well-adapted young  Live for a long time  Provide unlimited parental care BUT  Limits time and energy force trade-offs -the challenge  Make the best use of limited time, energy and resources to maximize fitness  Selection acts on these strategic decisions  The “life plan” that results = life history A)life history traits are shaped by selection -for example, why do birds in the tropics lay fewer eggs than close relatives further north?  clutch= No. of eggs  the more eggs you have in the nest, the higher fitness, you eventually reach a limit of the number of eggs you can produce and your own survival, as nests get larger and larger the costs starts to rise dramatically, this is what selection is trying to do, create the maximum difference between cost and fitness  in the tropics the sun rises at six and goes down at six, in the north the summer days are longer  Difference in daylight that was driving this pattern  Answer: the number of eggs laid is ultimately limited by the number of offspring parents can feed  Lack’s Hypothesis: bird parents have more hours of daylight to catch food at higher latitudes -Key points:  Life history traits influence fitness  Life histories are open to selection  Life history theory makes testable predictions -is the observed average clutch size the most productive?  “conflict” between the sexes explains why 11 eggs is the optimal clutch size in blue tits, the number surviving decreases as the brood size gets larger  its all about the female body size, they do not survive if they produce too many eggs -Life history re-cap:  Life histories result from selection to optimize fitness via strategic “decisions” about survival and reproduction  Life histories are always limited by o Mode of thermoregulation o Mode of reproduction o Phylogeny o Body size B) Trade-offs: Survival and Reproductive Effort in Plants and Animals -all life histories reflect trade offs  Physiological=growth vs reproduction or survival  Reproductive=reproduction vs survival o Offspring size vs fecundity o Age of first reproduction vs mortality -trade offs in pine trees and fruit flies  linear relationship between body size and longevity in days  size vs. number of offspring in fish  Study of 10 darter species from 64 US rivers/streams o FIGURE 9.3  Relationship between female darter size and number of eggs  The females of larger darter species produce more eggs o FIGURE 9.4  Relationship between the size of eggs laid by darters and the number of eggs laid  Darter species that produce larger eggs lay fewer  egg size, clutch size, and gene flow among darter populations o Consequences of life history trade-offs in darters o Smaller larvae lead to greater gene flow o FIGURE 9.5  Darters produce larger eggs have lower gene flow among their populations, while…  …Darters producing more eggs show higher rates of gene flow among populations  seed size and number in plants o Large variation in plant seed sizes across species  Trade offs in plants o Negative relationship between seed mass and seed number o FIGURE 9.7  Plants that produce larger seeds produce fewer  Jakobsson and Eriksson planted seeds of 50 species of meadow plants o Larger seeds=greater recruitment o Smaller seeds=better germination in disturbed environments o FIGURE 9.9  Seedlings growing from larger seeds recruited into the population at a higher rate o Sometimes small body size can out do large body size, due to lower nutrient needs etc  if reproduction trade-offs against survival, why variation in senescence? o Senescence= gradual decline, common o Difficult to detect o Not just “wear and tear” because longevity varies across species of similar size and physiology o (mice live 3-5 years; bats 10 to 20 yrs in captivity) o key variable= pattern of adult survival o if low adult survival, selection should favour early, faster senescence (mice) o if high adult survival, senescence should start later and be more gradual (bats)  life history variation among species o mortality rates should be key to age at first reproduction o appears to be true for reptiles and fish o FIGURE 9.10  Relationship between A) adult survival among lizards and snakes and B) adult fish mortality and age of reproductive maturity  Lizards and snake that have higher survival mature at a later age, or…  …looking at the relationship from the opposite perspective…  …fish with higher mortality rates reach reproductive maturity at an earlier age  life history and parent offspring conflict? o Female red deer o Maternal condition affects offspring sex o Milk from mother is essential, if you never breed your mortality of constant until you die of old age o In reproductive deer, low chance of mortality from age 6-9, higher chance of dying after these years o If she is in good condition, good sperm, most likely have sons, sons are twice as energetically expensive as females, give a lot of milk, so when he gets sexually mature he will produce a lot of grandchildren o If they have a crummy year, they are likely to give birth to a female o Maternal conditions produce offspring sex LECTURE #3 Life History variation within species  Sometime trade-offs select for dramatic temporal changes in life histories, such as sex change  Eg Coral reef fish (female to male), compare with Jack in the pulpit, depends on environment conditions  Or alternative reproductive strategies  Eg. Pumpkinseed fish territorial vs. sneakers, sneakers resemble females, if there are too many sneakers the payoff will be less  When taking away male from nest area, we saw that largest female began to take on traits of the male leading to a sex change taking on male fertilizing functions Pacific Coho Salmon  Eggs- hatch late winter/early spring  Alevin- 1 to 2 years in natural stream (freshwater)  Smolt- at 100 to 150mm migrate to ocean (march to july), size dependant trigger that takes them to ocean  Adult females typically sexually mature after 18 months, no variation  Adult males much more variable  Life history variation within species: alternative life histories in coho salmon  FIGURE 9.12 o Male coho salmon exhibit two alternative life history strategies. “Jack” forms mature earlier at small sizes, while “hooknose” mature later and bigger. These life histories are associated with different mating behaviours  “big-Bang” Breeders Semelparous (single reproductive episode before death)  breed then die  irreversible decision on whether they will become a Jack or hooknose  Jack grow quickly and are sexually mature, accelerated sexual maturity, act like sneakers, Jack in the freshwater can sometimes act as fighters, most act as sneakers, rush in when the female is releasing her eggs  Hooknose sexually mature more slowly, after 18 months come back, most of the time they fight, sometimes they will sneak  What controls the growth is a combination of genes and environment How can alternate strategies co-exist?  Equal fitness pay-offs for Jacks and Hooknoses=  Disruptive selection on male age at sexual maturity  But if environment changes?? Suppose anglers impose higher mortality on hooknoses?? Why breed only once?  Semelparity o When the benefit of reproduction requires GREAT EFFORT  In other words, any lesser effort = 0 success  Big bang breeders breed once, have very high reproductive rates, than die, “programmed death”  Examples: Bamboo- grow very fast asexually, then when the bamboo get very very dense, they suddenly turn on reproductive seeds to become sexual Why breed repeatedly  Iteroparity  When good reproductive success can be achieved at low levels of effort  When adult survival is high and juvenile survival highly variable  In some species, males are semelparous but females are iteroparous (capelin, sardine like fish; redbacked spiders) C) how genes and environment shape life history How genes and environment shape life history in the water flea  Daphnia pulex can reproduce 2 ways, with and without sex  A) the first way, most common, is : via Cyclical parthogenesis (CP) o 1) mom makes diploid eggs through mitosis = offspring are clones (this is asexual) o 2) but eggs develop into females at low population densities and males at high population densites = “ESD” o so offspring are genetically identical but different gender  But when environment worses… o CP moms undergo meiosis= eggs (N) that need a male to fertilize (2N) (this is sexual) o Why sex when environment worsens? o The male parent may come from same clone as mom, or a different clone  B) the second way to reproduce is: obligate parthenogenesis (OP) (this form is rare) o =mom always produces eggs via mitosis, because meiosis is suppressed. These offspring are clones, never haploid. (this is obligate asexual) o but a few OP clones can produce males via ESD- function of these males unclear  Innes and Herbert (1988): what is the genetic basis of OP? o Study crossed males from obligatory parthenogenetic (OP) clones to females from cyclically parthenogenetic (CP) o Did 19 crosses producing 102 hybrid clone offspring o Then collect “resting” eggs produced by 10 of the hybrids looked at protein sequences of hatchlings o Predicted eggs produced by OP more uniform o Predicted eggs by CP parent more variable o Ie they used the protein variability of hatchlings to determine whether eggs were produced by CP or OP mode o Results o Of the eggs from the 10 hybrids: o Eggs of 4 hybrids produced by OP (like dad); eggs of 6 hybrids reproduced like CP (like mom) o Recall all females were CP at start, this means mating with OP males caused almost half the hybrids to switch mode of reproduction o So genes suppressing meiosis (OP) can be transferred by male parent = means OP is under basic genetic control D) From r and K to “life history cubes” -Life history classification -r vs K selection -r is intrinsic rate of growth, rate at which population can increase -K is maximum population size when it runs out of food, population capacity when it runs out of resources -r and K are ends of a continuum; most organisms fall between two ends  FIGURE 9.20 o Characteristics favoured by r versus K selection Potential attribute r selection K selection Potential of High Low population growth rate, r Competitive ability Not strongly favoured Highly favoured Development Rapid Slow Reproduction Early Late Body Size Small Large Reproduction Single, Semelparity Repeated, iteroparity Offspring Many, small Few, large -Plant life histories  FIGURE 9.22 o Grime’s classification of plant life-history strategies o Competitive species such as birch predominate under conditions of low disturbance and low stress o Ruderals are dominant under conditions of high disturbance and low stress o Stress-tolerant species predominate under conditions of low disturbance and high stress -Life history “cubes”  FIGURE 9.26 o Life history cube, a classification of fish, mammals, and altricial birds based on three dimensionless indices, indicates little variation within taxa but a great deal of difference among taxa o Birds, mammals, and fish occupy well-seperated regions of Charnov’s life history cube (scaled by relative reproductive life span, relative reproductive effort over adult life span, and relative offspring size)  Found a way to scale the reproductive parameters of animals LECTURE 4 Distribution and Abundance of Populations and Species (Chapter 10) Outline for today: A) Distribution and Abundance are 2 fundamental properties of populations Why do we need to measure these? How do we measure these B) How does the environment imposes range limits on populations? C) What do patterns of dispersion (individual spacing) tell us? D) What is a metapopulation? Why do metapopulation dynamics reveal about the environment and species persistence? E) Predictave Patterns: Organism size and density; commonness and rarity, Rapaport’s and Hanski’s Rules Distribution and Abundance  Are fundamental population parameters, determined by population dynamics  Distribution=size, shape, and location of area occupied  Density= number of individuals per unit area, or absolute density  Ecologists measure relative density= number of individuals per unit area suitable habitat  Estimating abundance is challenging: o Humans-canada, 2/km 2 o Deer-4/km 2  Estimating Abundance: BIDE o B-Birth o I-Immigration o D-Death o E-Emigration  When density changes, due to what parameter?  Challenges: wide range of densities, size and mobility of organisms Measuring Absolute Density  Total counts (only reliable for a few spp) census (humans), aerial surveys, colony “snapshots”  Sample Counts Quadrats (plants, limpets) Capture-Recapture Lincoln-Peterson Mark-Capture  N=M(n+1)/(m+1) Assumptions of mark-recap methods  Closed population (no B, D, E, I) between time of marking and checking  All animals are equally likely to be captures/re-sighted  Markings don’t disappear/fall off  Finally, do we really know the area over which density in being estimated?  Despite these limitations, still a common method for measuring absolute density Measuring Relative Density  Vocalizations, pellet counts, pelt records  Catch per unit effort (#fish/100hrs trawling)  Number of artifacts  Ground cover  Bait records  Roadside counts  ****CITIZEN SCIENCE****- sometimes called “public participation in scientific research”, Formally, citizen science has been defined as "the systematic collection and analysis of data; development of technology; testing of natural phenomena; and the dissemination of these activities by researchers on a primarily avocational basis" Why do species have range limits?  Physical environment limits geographic distribution of a species; at the edges of a species niche, the metabolic costs of dealing with environmental stressors become too great Response to gradients  Example 1- Temperature  Tiger beetle (cicindela longilabris) lives at higher latitudes and elevations than most other tiger beetle species in North America  FIGURE 10.3 o The distribution of the tiger beetle, C. longilabris, across North America suggest that it is confined to cool, moist habitats o In the far north, they live throughout the boreal forests of North America o South of the boreal, this tiger beetle species are confined to high mountain forests and meadows Individuals often have narrow tolerances  Despite large geographic separation of populations, physiological tolerances are very similar  FIGURE 10.4 o Uniform temperature preference across extensive geographic range o C. longilabris living in northern regions of Maine and Wisconsin have a preferred body temperature of 34 degrees celcius o This is virtually identical to the preferred temperature of C. longilabris living in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado and Arizona Example 2- Barnacles along a moisture gradient  Chthamalus (top of tideline) and Balanus (lower where it receives more moisture) have evolved different degrees of resistance to drying  Moisture varies with intertidal exposure  Balanus and Chthamalus adults differ in distribution along Scotland coast  FIGURE 10.6 o Distributions of two barnacle species within the intertidal zone o Balanus balanoides larvae settle throughout intertidal zone but survive to adults mainly in middle to lower intertidal zones o Chthamalus stellatus larvae settle in middle and upper intertidal zones but survive to adults mainly in upper intertidal zone  Balanus does not tolerate exposure/dessication  FIGURE 10.7 o Barnacle mortality in the upper intertidal zone o Warm weather and calm seas produced much higher mortality among Balanun balanoides than among Chthamalus stellatus in upper intertidal zone  Connell’s transplant experiments on adult chthamalus revealed distribution is also limited by competition Climate-mediated range shifts  May increase extinction risk  Previous studies show individual species have shifted to higher latitudes and elevations  1) are greater shifts occurring in regions with greater warming?  2) does this occur across taxonomic groups (not just individual species)?  Yes, range shifts are related to measured rates of temperature change (looked at over 1000 species), latitudinally organisms are going north as expected but not higher in elevation at expected rates Spatial distributions within populations  Though no species occurs everywhere, we don’t really know the actual area occupied by most species, because detailed mapping hasn’t been done  Most species’ geographic range is described on o Small scale: distances of no more than a few hundred meters over which there is little environmental change significant to organism under study o Large scale: area over which substantial environmental change, e.g. patterns along mountain slope, etc (very expensive)  Distribution of individuals on small scales reveals Process o FIGURE 10.8  Random distribution- an individual has an equal probability of occurring anywhere in the area, ex. Mosquitos, neutral interactions between individuals, and between individuals and local environment  Regular distribution-individuals are uniformly spaced through the environment, antagonistic interactions between individuals or local depletion of resources  Clumped distribution- individuals live in areas of high local abundance, which are separated by areas of low abundance, attraction between individuals or to a common resource; limited dispersal  Example: Root competition in Desert Shrubs o Brisson and Reynolds excavated root systems of 32 creosote bushes in New Mexico desert (475 m patch, took 2 months) o FIGURE 10.11  Creosote bush root distributions: hypothetical versus actual root overlap  A) Excavated root systems- the root systems of 32 Creosote bushes were mapped  B) Hypothetical circular root systems- if excavated shrubs had circular root systems, 20% of the area would include extensive overlap of four or more shrubs (shaded area)  C) Actual root systems- the actual root system systems were not circular and overlapped extensively in only 4% of the area o Almost no root overlap even though each root system is trying to get maximum nutrient and water to plants roots LECTURE 5- GUEST LECTURE Ethical Review and Regulatory Oversight of the use of animals in research and teaching  Animals for research act (Provincial) o Regulation 24 Research facilities and supply facilities o Enforced by OMAF o Annual unannounced facility inspections  Canadian Council on Animal Care o Regulates all across Canada o National peer review agency responsible for setting and maintaining standards for the care and use of animals used in research, teaching, and testing throughout Canada o Establish guidelines and policies, and conduct assessment visits at least every 3 years o Participants that have successfully completed the assessment receive a Certificate of Good Animal Practice o Review and approval of all proposals to use animals  Proposal has been reviewed for scientific merit  Compliance with accepted ethical standards  Each protocol reviewed annually o Authority  Halt any study that deviates from the approved protocol  Animals are found to be suffering excessive pain or distress that cannot be relieved o Ensuring standards for animal facilities and care  Facility standards and the care of the animals are in accordance with the CCAC Guidelines o Prevention and relief of pain and distress, and ensuring adequate veterinary care o Ensuring the training and skills of all persons working with animals used in science o Membership of the ACC  Scientists and/or teachers experiences in animals care and use  Veterinarians experienced in animals care and use  An institutional member whose normal activities do not involve animals  At least one person representing community interests and concerns who does not have any links with the institution or with animal use for research, teaching or testing  Technical staff involved in animals care and use  Student representation in academic institutions  Animal facility managers  The three R’s o Replacement- methods which avoid or replace the use of animals in an area where animals would otherwise have been used o Reduction- refers to any strategy that will result in fewer animals being used with no loss of useful information o Refinement- modification of husbandry or experimental procedures to minimize pain and distress  Key Points when planning a study o Animal safety should be the highest priority o Knowledge of study species o Inclusion of a pilot study when necessary o Use of the least invasive practice possible o Minimization of disturbance to animals and habitat o Measures to prevent detrimental effects on the population o Maximize information obtained and reduce impact on individual o Know and minimize causes of stress or discomfort; a distressed animal provides poor data  Capture o Knowledge of species  Moult  Behaviour  Time of day o Minimizing stress and injury  Correct mesh size  No sharp edges  Safe and easy to use  Non-destructive to vegetation o Evaluation of trapping method and planned endpoints o Minimize by-catch  Health evaluation o Aspects to consider  Respiration rate  Feather condition  Messy vent  Pectoral muscle mass  Cardiac function  Capture myopathy  Marking o All marking requires a capture and banding permit o Considerations for choosing a marking method  Species, biology, ecology, behaviour  Purpose of the study-individual or cohort marking  Coordination with other studies  Length of research  Possibility of pain o Potential for injury and/or pain if improperly done  Animal trends o 3.4 million animals used for research in Canada o large increase in mouse use due to genetics o dogs used to test pharmaceutical drugs  CCAC Categories of Invasiveness o Category A- E  Purpose of Animal Use LECTURE 6 Distributions of Individuals over Larger Scales o Reveals significant environmental variation. o On this scale, individuals are usually clumped. o Ex. bird populations across North America, Christmas Bird Counts (CBC), just mean bird counts that occur across Christmas time. (Throughout winter)  Started in 1900 with 27 observers sampling 26 localities (2 in Canada).  In 2008 59,813 observers in 2,124 localities (361 in Canada)  Provides unique extensive data set for distribution of birds across North America.  Data is collected by the public o Ex. Broadly distributed American crow  FIGURE 10.13
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