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BIOL 341 (2)
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OLD EXAM QUESTIONS ANSWERED.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 341
Professor
Sharon Regan
Semester
Winter

Description
Define x3 a Nitrogeniseconverts nitrogen gas to ammonia innitrogenfixing microorganisms The nitrogenase enzyme complex catalyzes the reduction of N2 to 2 NH3 a sixelectron transfer is coupled to the reduction of two protons to evolve H2 a Proton coupled symport b Halophyteplants that are native to saline soils and complete their life cycles in that environment a b Chromophorethe lightabsorbing pigment moleculre one of the 2 subunits that make up phytochromes In higher plants the chromophore of phytochrome is a linear tetrapyrrole termed phytochromobilin There is only one chromophore per monomer of apoprotein and it is attached to the protein through a thioether linkage to a cysteine residue A symbiotic relationship between the mycelium of a fungus and the roots of a plant c Mycorrhizaed Hypersensitive responsea plant defence where cells immediately surrounding the infection site die rapidly depriving the pathogen of nutrients and preventing its spread After a successful hypersensitive response a small region of dead tissue is left at the site of the attempted invasion but the rest of the plant is unaffected a downward curvature of leaves as a result of differential growth rate e Epinastyf Expansiona turgordriven process and is extremely sensitive to water deficit Cell expansion is described by the relationship GRmpYexpansion is determined by the orientation of the cellulose microfibrilsin the cell wallg Enhancer elementDistantly located positive regulatory sequences eukaryotic genes can be regulated bycontrol elements located tens of thousands of base pairs away from the start sitea Fermentationyeast converts the glucose in the wort to ethanol in anaerobic conditions when there is no oxidative phosphorylation to maintain the production of ATP Adenosine triphosphate by glycolysisalso called as posttranscriptional gene silencing PTGS refers to a family ofgene b Rna silencingsilencing effects by which the expression of one or more genes is downregulated or entirely suppressedby the introduction of an antisense RNA moleculec Type three secretion systemis a protein appendage found in several Gramnegative bacteria In pathogenic bacteria the needlelike structure is used as a sensory probe to detect the presence of eukaryotic organisms and secreteproteins that help the bacteria infect them The proteins are secreted directly from the bacterialcell into the eukaryotic cell also known as the host cell heatinactivated walls were restored to nearly full acid growth responsiveness by addition of d Expansinproteins extracted from growing walls The active components proved to be a group of proteins that were named expansions the polar ends of water molecules can orient themselves next to charged or partially e Shell hydrationcharged groups in macromolecules forming shell hydrationThe Casparian strip is a band of radial cell walls in the endodermis that is impregnated f Casparin stripwith the waxlikehydrophobic substance suberin Suberin acts as a barrier to water and solute movement Companion cells are sources of ATP g Transfer companion cellone of the three ypes of companion cells and perhaps other compounds and in some species are transfer cells or intermediary cells Transfer cells are similar to ordinary companion cells except for the development of fingerlike wall ingrowths particularly on the cell walls that face away from the sieve element These wall ingrowths greatly increase the surface area of the plasma membrane thus increasing the potential for solute transfer across the membrane are specialized cells located in the leaf epidermis of plants controlling gas exchange and water a Guard cellloss Pairs of guard cells surround tinystomatal airway pores
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