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Final

Chem 112 Exam AID Course Pack (2).pdf


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 112
Professor
N/ A
Study Guide
Final

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CHEM 112: General Chemistry
Course Package Review
Queen’s SOS: Students Offering Support
Authors: Ethan Newton and Barry Zhang
April 2012

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Contents:
1.0 Introduction
Nomenclature
Stoichiometry
2.0 Atomic Structure/Quantum Chemistry
Electromagnetic radiation
Blackbody radiation
Photoelectric effect
Bohr model
Quantum numbers
Pauli exclusion principle/ rules for filling orbitals
Lewis Structures
3.0 Molecular Structure
Molecular Geometries
Polar covalent bonding
Hybridization
MO diagrams
4.0 Gas Laws
Properties of gases and ideal gases
Ideal Gas Law
Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
Effusion and Graham’s Law
“Real” Gas Law
5.0 Phase Transitions/Equilibrium
Trouten’s Rule
Clausius-Clapeyron equation
Relative Humidity
Phase Diagrams
Intermolecular Forces
6.0 Solutions
Introduction
Azeotropes
Colligative properties
Vapour pressure lowering/ boiling point elevation/ freezing point depression
Osmotic pressure
7.0 Thermodynamics
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Enthalpy of Thermodynamics
8.0 Practice Questions (Fall Term)
9.0 Chemical Equilibria
Definitions
Equilibrium Constant
Relative Activity

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Reaction Quotient
Factors effecting Equilibrium
10.0 Thermodynamics and Equilibrium
Relationships between ΔG and equilibrium
11.0 Acid and Base Chemistry
Definitions
Strong, weak and polyprotic acids
pH and pOH
12.0 Hydrolysis of Salts
Definition of salts
Effects of salts in solution
13.0 Common Ion Effect and Titration
Common Ion Effect
Buffer solutions
Acid-Base Titrations
Indicators
14.0 Electrochemistry
15.0 Organic Chemistry
1.0 Introduction
Nomenclature:
Valence Shell Electrons:
The most common number of valence shell electrons "involved in bonding" may be found
using this guide.
Group IA IIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIII
Valence +1 +2 +3 +4 -3 -2 -1 0
Oxidation Numbers:
Loss of Electrons: Oxidation
! When electrons are lost on a given atom during bond formation, it becomes
POSITIVELY charged
Gain of Electrons: Reduction
! When an atom gains an electron during bond formation, it becomes NEGATIVELY
charged
When you are unsure of an element’s oxidation number, look it up on the periodic table
Naming Compounds:
Binary Compounds Compounds with two atoms bonded together
! For convenience, treat all compounds as ionic compounds, even though many are
covalent.
! Compounds have no net charge. Therefore, positive and negative charges on ions have
to balance one another.
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