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CLST 101 Exam Review.docx

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Classical Studies
CLST 101
Christina Zaccagnino

CLST 101 Exam Review Weddings - Puberty was time to become a wife - Wife was given with gifts to husband; wife gives money to her sons - If divorced, money is given back to wife’s father - Kinship between wife’s/husband’s houses - Attic bathing vessel- represented wedding, bride on chariot then bride unveiling herself - Bride is veiled and unveiled at house in front of husband - When bride reaches house it marks the start of marriage, then had to bare and raise children - Wife takes care of house, food and clothing - By time of marriage, woman should be able to cook, clean, weave (taught by mother and mother-in-law) Lysias, Murder of Eratosthenes - Married a younger women, she cheated with a young man; met the man at her mother-in-laws funeral - With help of slave to leave the house, she could cheat on husband - Husband killed the young man - Law says if one caught another man cheating he could kill him without charge - He planned to catch them -“Watched wife from a far, then once she has his child he thought that had tied them very close. But my mothers death led to tis man seducing my wife” -“Any woman who works on her beauty when her man is gone, indicates herself as being a whore. She has no reason to show her painted face outside the door unless she is looking for trouble” -“Woman is to stay indoor, help dispatch servants who work outside, and supervise those who work inside. You will receive incoming revenue, and be responsible to any surplus. Make garments with the wool delivered, and take care of the dried grain, keep it fit for consumption. You will have to see that any of the ill servants get proper treatment” Penelope -Famous for avoiding marriage -Worked all day then would destroy her work, tricked men into thinking when she was done her work she would marry them Free Women - Courtesans, prostitutes and concubines- all could join men in the symposium Aspasia - Concubine who came to Athens and opened a brothel, well educated -Pericles loved her but couldn’t marry her because their child would not be legitimate (full Athenian citizen) - Pericles asked for an exception to the law but his son died Prostitution - Legal in Athens, income for Athens - Women came from all over Greece, some became famous - Prostitutes were very wealthy, could be male or female Homosexual Relations -Father gave consent to relationship -Life of wife/husband separate before marriage, bride was young, man was old (30+), to disobey husband was an act of hubris - Men commonly had relationships with young boys before marriage Gymnasium - Men competed in naked competitions, sparked relations between men Education -Children went to school if parents couldn’t teach them -Reading, writing, math, music, sports, fighting -Teachers paid by parents and children -“When a boy knew his letters and was read to proceed from spoken to written, teacher would make him sit down and read poets and learn them by heart. He would learn lots, find plenty of advice and praise the past men, as they were good models for them” Female Education -Education at home; knew how to read, write, basic math, household duties and dance Sophistes -Taught goodness and excellence -Expensive education -Stressed language, rhetoric skills and politics Famous Sophistes -Protagoras from Abdera (fl. = floruit = flourished) -Gorgair from Leontini- (peitho = persuasion) Socrates -Charged with introducing new gods, corrupting young men and was put to death by hemlock -Works of Xenophon, Plato, Aristophanes and Aristotle talk about Socrates Plato -Created his school, the Academy Aristophanes - Wrote Clouds -Strepsiades wants to escape his debts; he enrolls his son Pheidippides into the school of Socrates, so that he might learn how to defeat the creditors in court. The son learns disrespect for social mores and beats his father after an argument. Father sets school on fire Isokrates -Set up first university in Athens Work and Slavery -Plowing, shoe makers, pottery, blacksmith, -Silver coinage -Civic Official- Astunomoi -Market Official- Agoranomoi -Weight and Measures Official- Metronomoi -Grain Supply Official- Sitophulakes -Slaves work jobs, around the house etc. -Short hair meant you were a slave Metics -After living in Athens for one month, non-Athenians Greeks had to register as a metic -Men pay one Darkme and women pay half per month -Had to be registered in a deme, weren’t allowed to own Athenian property, had to serve in army, mostly equal rights with citizens, could own factories and become rich Lysias -Famous Metic who made shields for a living -When the 30 tyrants weren’t in power anymore he couldn’t keep his property but began writing speeches for people in court because he was so smart Thracian Cult of Bendis -Started by Metics, introduced new gods to be worshipped, each Greek city has a god with special right, rituals and worship -Isis is an Egyptian goddess from Athens, Egypt was an important producer of wheat and grains; Athens needed wheat because it couldn’t provide enough for entire population Healthcare -More important for warriors to give first aid in battle -Injuries aren’t as serious as infection -Demokedes and Hippokrates were the best physicians -Hippockratic Oath- never use medicine to hurt anyone -Hippokratic Corpus- contains work on medicine -Plague of Athens at the Peloponnesian war -Vases represent doctor’s office- collecting blood, line-ups for doctors Death -Bodies were dressed, water put outside house to wash hands, bodies taken to cemetery (women could leave the home) -People who couldn’t afford a funeral burn bodies Democracy - Solon -Constitution based on ownership of property -Four property classes were- Pantakosiomedimnoi (produced 500*), Hippeis (500-400), zaugitai (400-300) and thetes (under 200) -Law making it impossible to enslave Athenians Peisistratos -Organized Panathenaia, wanted Iliad and Odyssey recited -Hippias and Hipparkhos were tyrants -Hippias was exiled; Hipparkhos was assassinated Kleisthenes -Organized city-states into phylai (coastal, inland or inside Athens), started democracy Council of 500 (Boule) -Met 40x/year, at least 6000 in attendance to be legitimate meeting -Proutaneis- 50 members of the boule who lived in Tholos for 35-36 days all day -Proedroi- head of assembly and council -Set agenda for eklesia (assembly), took suggestions, talked about important political affairs, always answered to assembly -At least 6000 people needed to vote, assembly had final say Arkhontes -Chosen from first 2 property groups, 9 arkhontes Kerux (Herald) -Boule appointed 8 Law -Court held on Aeropagus Hill -Aeropagus council consisted of dikasteria (jury courts), dikastai (jurors), Heliastic oath and a pinakion was an identity ticket for a juror -Lead tokens were used to vote -Polomarkus- first only lawsuits in warfare- then lawsuits against foreigners and metics -Only citizens (men) have the right to vote -Could only be on council if you had served as an Arkhon for 1 year (originally had political power but after 5 th century they lost their power) Drakon’s Text of Law -Laws created about homicide and crime, put on a stone, displayed in the agora -No public prosecutor, family had to charge a killer Outlawry -Atimia (without honor) became a less important crime -People put on trial were put under outlawry (property was confiscated) Income and Expenditure -Taxes, fees and fines -Property taxes, living taxes (metics), taxes on goods, loans, leasing Leitourgia (Liturgy) -Richest of the city (trierarch) had to pay for trireme, be commander, and contribute crew and anything else to ship Antidosos -Exchange of properties, how to avoid liturgy Eisphora -Property taxes installed when the state was at war and ran out of money -System overthrown by Summorai (tax syndicates) Grain Supply -Came from Northern Greece, Black Sea, Sicily and Egypt -Sitophulakes were grain inspectors Athenian Empire -Persian Wars- Marathon (Athenians who died were buried), Salamis (Persians sacked Athens, didn’t rebuild because they needed reminder of Persian danger) and Plataea (Greeks banded together) Sparta -Had slaves who were caught in war Kleruchs and Apoikoi -Kleruchs given land in another city-state for a service, retained Athenian citizenship, sometimes they would move to the estate or they would get slaves to work there -Apoikoi moved outside of Athens and lose citizenship Aristophanes -Wrote a comedy titles “Birds” -2 Athenians was to find a new place for their people; though seers they find a spot in the clouds called coo- coo land Revolt Against Athens -Euboia because they didn’t want to swear citizenship oath -Khalkis Athenian Decline -Athens was powerful during Persian Wars -Sparta was powerful during Peloponnesian wars -Social war/War of Allies -Athenian Confederacy ends, Athens loses power, Alexander the Great defeats Dareios Athens at War -Animal sacrifice before battle -Ravaging and plundering -Hoplite- round shield, helmet, spear -Psioloi- lightly armed -Hippeis- part of cavalry because they had horse power and could afford some armor The Macedonian Cavalry -Reconstruction of weapons, tactics and phalanx -Wooden towers, missiles, stones Athenian Naval Warfare -Delphic Oracle told Themistocles to “build a wooden wall” -Built 200 ships Triremes -Three levels of rowers, soldiers defending on deck - 31 top level (thranitai), 27 middle level (zigioi) and 27on bottom level (thalamitai) -Slaves or free people rowed- had to be able to move beam on rhythm -170 rowers, 10 hoplites, 4 archers, steersman, rowing officer, bow officer, shipwright, flute player Tactic (Diekplous) -Sail in and out of enemy line and appear on their stern Fleet -Built by triarchy and public funding, public funding paid crew, -60 warships and forty troopships Alphabet -Phoenician alphabet Ionic Greek (installed vowels and changed the way letters were pronounced and used) Monsters -Seen in art, lived between two worlds -Herakles was mother to Echidra (woman/snake), Khimaira (lion/snake), Hydra (13 snake heads) and Kerbos (3 dog heads) Philosophy -Devotion to uncommon knowledge -Began in Asia Minor Philosophical Thinkers Thales- “water is the source of all things” Anixmander- “boundless is origin of all” Anexmenes- “air is the source of all things” Xenophanes- “radical theology” Paraneides- “change is impossible” Heraklitos- “opposites” Empeocles- “air, fire, wind, earth as well as love and strife” Demoknitos- “atomic theory” Alkmaion- “men are dry, women are wet”, medicine Pythagoras- “all things made from number” Zenon -Interest in paradoxes -Achilles and the tortoise (tortoise and the hare) Persuasion -Persuasion (peitho) is very strong -Helen shouldn’t be blamed for going with Paris to Troy because she was persuaded Protagoras -Sophist, studied words and knowledge -We cannot know anything about the gods -Double arguments concerning questions (dissoi logoi) Medicine -Dissect animals to understand the human body -Find diagnosis through similar symptoms History -Herodotus (Father of History) Xenophon -Hellenika, Anabasis, Cyropaedia, Memorabilia Great Dionysia -Lasted 4 days, established by Peisistratos -Play writers had to submit 3 tragedies and 1 satyr play; comedians submitted 1 comedy -Arkhon Eponymos chose 3 tragedies and 5 comedies to plays a the Dionysus Eleutherios Prizes in Drama Contests -1 judge from each of the 10 tribes -Won a wreath and money, allowed to erect column in own honor Tragoidia -Winning song prized a goat -3 actors (originally 1 3 1215) -Mythological themes -3 connected tragedies in chronological order were called trilogies Pottery -Depicts peoples performances Actors -Changed masks to be 1+ character and modified voice -Only men could act Theatre Parts (Most famous theatre was Epidaurus) Theatron- semi-circular Alt
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