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Classical Studies
CLST 101
Christina Zaccagnino

Classics EXAM review Notes Week 1 Lecture One: Bronzed Age Greece 1) Cycladic Civilization (2700 – 2400 BC: civilization flourished) 2) Minoan Civilization 3) Mycenaean Civilization (1650 – 1200 BC) Non-Greek Civilizations 1) Cycladic 2) Minoan Cycladic - arose in southern Crete Minoan - Arose in island of Crete - Linear A tablets - Name is after King “Minos” Mycenaean - lived in Greece - flourished around the 1600, and they were organized with burocracy - they had a lot of goods stored in their palace, and needed a script Linear B - uses symbols to represent symbols - it is not an alphabet - Michael Ventris: deciphered the Linear B; indicating it was an early form of Greek - Sign sequence: relates to later classic Greek which in turn our modern day English is created from Armor - suit of armor from Dendra T. from the earl decades of the 14 century - 8 – shaped shield made from cow height - bronze dagger blade with lion hunt inlaid in gold and silver - warrior vases – c. 1200 BCE - horse drawn chariot for battle – with striker and someone guiding the horse Was a vivid civilization until 1200 BC when something changed - collapse of the civilization - - the dark period - The Fall of Troy – 1184 BC - we have Egyptian scriptures stating that people were ravaging the territory - combining documents from Egypt, Heptode – we know destruction occurred - it was a confusing period (110- 750) - after the dark period, they did not have the same richness and therefore could not maintain the right structure - writing disappears; no longer refer to them as Mycenaean Sea People: people who moved around a lot – raiders 1100 – 1000 BCE invasion of the Dorian Greeks into mainland Greece - When the situation began to start to change, they needed to begin writing again and therefore needed an alphabet - Phoenician alphabet was their definition alphabet; the Greek alphabet was adapted to include vowels. Phoenician alphabet did not use vowels. - Came out middle 800 ( right after dark age ) writing began to start again The War of Troy - we have information about it in the form of - 1) epics - 2) archeological evidences - 3) records from the Hittie empire and from Egypt Why did it happen?? Epics: mythological explanation 1) there was a wedding of Peleus and Thetis who were the parets of Achilles 2) Eris (Strife) was not invited and she was upset, the wanted to punish them and therefore placed a golden apple with an inscription “for the most beautiful” 3) Each Goddess at the wedding claimed it was for them (Hera, Athena and Aphrodite) 4) Zeus decided it must be settled – Judgment of Paris (He was also called Alexandre) 5) Each Goddess was to offer something to Paris 6) Hera = royal power, Athena = victory of war, Aphrodite = Helen (wife of Menelaus, King of Sparta) Helen was known as most beautiful 7) Paris chose Aphrodite – lead Helen away 8) A war was then moved against Troy, lead by Agamemnon (King of Mycenae and brother Menelaus – as revenge for taking Menelaus’ wife) We have other Epics that are not preserved or only have titles - Bust of Homer from Rome - Homer: a real person or a mythical ancestor of Homeraidae? - Ancient account of his life is largely demonstrated in fictions - Chios and Smyma = birthplace Poetry - we must consider it was recited and sung (had music with it) - poets were represented as figured with a musical instrument In 522 BCE - Hipparchus, tyrant of Athens with his brother Hippias, arranged for the Ilian and the Odyssey to be recited at the main festival of the city (the Panathenaia) as it was considered an important part of their past Ilian and the Odyssey: one author (Homer) or two? - Orality: poetic dictation – scene – construction range formulae and repertoire of repeated sequences indicate a background of oral poetry - Language: mixture of different dialects - In Ilian and Odssey memories of the Mycenaean age – but the social and economic background we can get reading the poems was of the time of the poem. - The collective name for Greeks is Achaeans Lecture 3 (condensed notes- missed class) - Plot: Anger of Achilles - The Iliad tells of only a few curtail days (41) of the whole Trojan War - Agamemnon takes Chryseis for himself from the spoils of war - The father of Chryseis, priest of the god Apollo, appeals to Agamemnon to ransom his daughter - Agamemnon refuses, and Apollo sends a plague on the Greek camp - Agamemnon finally gives her back, but compensates himself by taking Briseis from Achilles - Achilles is furious, and withdraws from the fighting - Trojans gain supremacy, and Greeks send emissaries offering restitution but Achilles refuses - Patroklos goes to fight wearing Achilles’ own armor, and Hektor kills Patroklos - New set of armor built for Achilles, and he kills Hektor - Plot: the struggle of the Greek hero Odysseus to return home from Troy and regain his position as king of Ithaca - Odysseus kills suitors - The Homeric World - Historical Memories; o Wealth and power in the hands of the regional kings o There are not yet any Greek settlements in Asia Minor o Their swords and spearheads are of bronze and NOT IRON o They go to war in chariots o Ancient forms of heroes’ names o Some of the names of Trojans are actually Asiatic - Treaty between Hittite Muwatalli II and Alaksandu of Wilusa (Troy) - “If some enemy arises for you, I will not abandon you, just as I have now not abandoned you, and I will kill the enemy on your behalf. If your brother or someone of your family withdraws political support from you, and they seek the kingship I will certainly not dispose you” Mineral resources - building stone, limestone - clay - metals (copper, silver, lead, gold) Khalkos: copper, Khalkeus; coppersmith, Farming - September: wine producing grapes - October and November: ploughing and sowing - November: gathering olives - May: harvesting grain Week 2: - Lecture 1 – Monday Hesiod - He was a poet, who wrote poems around 700 BC. Wrote Works and Days, and Theology (meaning the Birth of the Gods). - At least they were mentioned under his name… was he the actual author? - His father (who we have a lot of information about), moved from a settlement of the coast, north of Athens. He moved to Ascra Agriculture in Greece - soil was poor quality, did not allow for good agriculture - hot dry summers, bad for crops, difficult - Demosthenes says “my land not only produced no crops, but that year as you all know even the water dried up in the wells” Olives - Very important during ancient war - Important as it produced oil - Oil was used for lamps, soap Grapes - Wine, but it was very dense and needed to be mixed with water to be drinkable Women -Typically stayed home, took care of the house and children - Women also picked fruit (vase pictures) - Animals were raised in this environment- cattle and mostly sheep and goats - Ancient Greeks drank goat milk and not cow milk Hunters - Hunted hares, foxes, and boar (tusks used for helmets) - Lions existed in northern parts; smaller and European Fishing - Very important source of food, majority of settlements were close to the coast - Had more fish in their diet than meat - Also caught octopus using a small cage/trap in the ocean Travel - Walking, horse back, donkey (good for small paths and close to mountain edge) and chariots (difficult to maneuver across rocky mountain territory) - Horse Back: expensive to own a horse – food and keeping the horse health costs a lot of money. Horses were not used during battle as when Greeks rode them they did not use straps (could easily fall off) - Triremes: typical Greek ship – used for sea battle Athens - Small village which was all unified - “Sinecism” of Attica (unified) - “Suniokismos” – unification/ or literally meaning to live all together (7 villages together as one - Athena welcomed back Theseus to Athens, and the unification was a tribute to him - City map: “polis” means city, each city has it’s own government and army, so Polis also refers to the government and independence of each city - Acropolis: temple located for Athena, also used as a political center, however over time it became only a religious center - Agora: market area - Keremeikos: area where workshops are located, all the vases and figure seen in the lectures created here - Wall of Themistokles: around Athens - You could find everything in the same place in Athens (fruit to chicken to a whiteness) - Boundary stones – located around wall stating “I am the boundary” - Water Springs: as there was not running water in homes, people had to go to public fountains to get water (women carry on their head) Temples – dedicated to gods - Polytheism: belief in more than one god - Pantheon: in reference to all gods (all of the gods) - Each major god is very active in many different spheres - Some gods have local associations – with citizens - Anything unusual could be because of a god - The gods wanted human acknowledgement – no rules or instructions were given as common gods do today - Example; earthquake – was caused by a god - Gods acted as humans, but could also be evil, they also has preferred human beings (Athena – Ais and Apollo – Hektor) Myths - Muthos: myth/story/allegory - Were not revealed scriptures of the truth - There were not sacred books Week 2 – lecture 2 – Wednesday Story of Zeus’ Birth The sons and daughters of Gaia and Ouranos were called titans and titanides - Gaia (earth) lay with Ouranos (sky) and bore children, including Rhea and Kronos (time) - Kronos was very powerful, he wanted to take over the rein of gods, and he made a decision to fight them for power - Kronos and Rhea birthed Zeus (god of all gods) - Every time Rhea would have a baby, Kronos would swallow them, so they could not grow up and become dangerous for him - Rhea had to hide Zeus when he was born, so she gave hi - Zeus away to be raised by a local family - Hera (wife, goddess of - She tricked Kronos, gave him a stone wrapped in blanket to women and marriage) swallow - Peseidon (god of the sea) - Zeus grew up, and became powerful. He began to fight against his father - Aphrodite (goddess of - He wanted to be the king of the gods beauty and love) - Ares (goddess of war) The 12 Olympians - Athena (goddess of - 12 Greek gods lived on mount Olympus wisdom, also a warrior) - there were also gods who lived in the underworld - Apollo (god of health, associated with the sun) - Artemis (goddess of hunting, associated with the moon) - Dionysos (god of wine) - Demeter (goddess of agriculture) - Hermes (messenger of gods) - Hephasitos (god of metal, fire, sculpture) * all lived northern Greece, Mount Olympus The first woman on earth Pandora – meaning the giver of all, or endowed with every thing Prometheus: son of a titan, dared to challenge Zeus twice in his life - he was punished by an eagle (bird of Zeus), who would eat his liver for the day, and he would then be left during the night and his liver would restore newly for the next day - the eagle was then killed by Herakles; he drove off his tormentor and freed him from the eagle - Herakles (son of Zeus) - Zeus was not angry at his son, for he praised his son and it was an honor for his son and his rage lifted Why was Zeus so angry at Prometheus? - When gods and men cam to the judgment to Mekone, Prometheus set out a cut portion of a great ox intending to deceive Zeus - He put the flesh of the entrails full of fat into the skin on one side, and hid them in the ox’s stomach; on the other side he put white bones of the ox, covering hem with shining fat - Zeus chose the shining fat, and got angry when he saw the white bones, from this day on the men burn white bones during sacrifice - Zeus denied mortals of the use of fire, but Prometheus deceived him once again and stole the fire, hiding it in a hollow reed Zeus told - famous Hephaistos to make a mixture - earth and water - to put a human voice in it, and strength - give it features of an immortal goddess and lovely shape of a virgin girl - He told Athena to teach her the craft of weaving, and for Aphrodite to pour golden charm about her head and fierce desire - He ordered Hermes, to give her the mind of a bitch and sly ways o Zeus gave her a gift, a jar of bad spirits o Zeus gave her as a gift to Prometheus’ brother, who was not very skilled o Pandora was able to persuade one to do something and convinced Epimtheus (Prometheus’ brother), to accept her even though his brother told him to never accept a present from Zeus o The brother accepted her o This was a disaster for men, she opened the jar to release the bad spirits except for elpis (hope) Week 2 – Lecture 3 Human contact with gods - dreams - oracles - divination - magic and curses Dreams - can be spontaneous or god-sent - they can be to convince the dreamer to take an action, true or deceitful - in some cases gods behaved in very deceitful/evil ways, they were frequently disruptive so if there was a god sent dream, it was usually deceitful - the dreamer needs to understand what the dream means when they wake up Example: - Hippais – led the Persians, and he had a dream which seemed to be him in bed with his mother, which he thought meant that he would return to Athens and die of old age and recover from the power he had lost - Turned out the dream was trying to tell him that the land was never his, as when he was very old he lost a tooth while coughing and could not find it in the earth beneath him Dreams in sanctuaries – divine healing dreams, people who were sick went in order to be cured Divine Guidance - in the 4 century BCE, the Athenians felt threatened and were not sure what to do and what strategy to use. - They sent Euxenippos and two others to a shrine to sleep and dream and report back to them - A person was went to Delphi to ask what they should do from an oracle Epidaraus - had an important temple dedicated to Asklepois, it was a very old cult and then became a city in the 5 th century – also created the treaty between Epidauros and Athens Healing Dreams (stories) 1) a man came to the god as a suppliant, so defiled in one eye that only his eyelids existed and nothing was in between them but an empty hole - a dream appeared to him as he slept in the sanctuary - it seemed that a god prepared a drug, a poured it in his eye socket, and when he awoke and departed he had both of his eyes 2) Cleo was pregnant for 5 years - she came as a suppliant to the gods and slept in the sanctuary - as soon as she left, she bore her son, and once he was born he washed himself and crawled up around his mother - the god made her healthy as she slept in the temple Oracles - most important was Delphi: temple of Apollo - “the lord who’s oracle is at Delphi neither reveals, nor conceals but gives a sign” - after oracles were given, they were typically discussed to interpret their meanings - Ex: The cities of Klazomenai and Kyme were disputing possession of Leuke, and they asked the god which city he wanted to possess Leuke, and his response was “Let the city which is first to make an sacrifice in Leuke have it. On the day agreed, each party should start at sunrise from its own city” Divination - Mantis (plural is Manteis) – seer - Melampos – the first seer - According to the first seer, he got his knowledge from the Egyptian people - Parts of the animal were important to look at; the liver corresponded to different gods - It was possible to determine if battles would be successful or not from the liver - Priests took care of sacrifices; made sure it was done in the correct way - Vase example: a warrior is examining a liver before the battle - Divination from the burning a gull bladder and looking at how the bile is sprayed - Divination before battles is important Magic and Curses - most famous is Kirke – with a magic potion who she gave Odysseus - Kirke – turned men into pigs, gave them food with wicked poison, and when they had eaten she turned them into pigs with the stroke of her wand - The men had the same senses, hair and such, just a pig head and grunted as pigs - Media – another famous sorcerer, niece of Kirke - she wanted to kill the king, he put a lamb in a cauldron and using magic she showed them she was able to rejuvenate the lamb - she convinced the king to do the same, except she killed him - It was common to write down curses on tablets, in order to bind people to bad spirits - written on lead - voodoo dolls: lead figures, sometimes dolls are put inside a coffin, dolls eventually disappear Activity of Gods - human acitivty - natural causes Week 3 – Lecture 1 Dike: Justice - gods do not give rules to men to govern societies Kosmos: ordered world - rules and order of the world are in the gods interest - unlike other religions where gods direct on behavior and values.. - law makers design rules for the community - it was important that kosmos worked properly - gods only wanted acknowledgement from the human beings, the humans lived in an ordinary world - Time: honor and respect - Aphrodite was upset, she felt dishonored, so she called the death of the human Hippolytos, who Artemis favored, so Artemis planned to slay her loved mortals - Gods used to punish mortals if they acted in a way they disliked - Asebes: with pity, (a person without pity) God’s cared for: - suppliants - heralds - strangers - beggars - all were protected by the gods, as they were form a different community and needed protection - the gods were also always concerned about blood shed (murder, child birth, and purification was needed, intercourse if blood was shed) Miasma: Pollution - a murderer who had escaped from their community or had been exiled - this person bought miasma with them, and people would not know where it was coming from - Erinyes (furies) – goddess from the Netherlands, often called when one needed revenge after a murder Oath - generally made by means of war - guarantors were the gods - written on stones, in public place Worshipping Gods - sacrifice: making something sacred - generally goats - the Greeks had a deceitful relationship with animals, as they would need the animals to help them and then they would slay them - Homer: “the men washed their hands, and took up sacrificial grains. They made their prayers, drew their heads back, slit their throats and skinned them. For the gods, they cut out the thigh bones, wrapped them in folds of fat and lad raw meat from the animal above them when the gods portion was consumed by fire, they ate the offal and then carved the rest of the victims into small pieces, pierced the pieces and roasted it. They then feasted.” - Best part of the animal: the tongue - The tools used for sacrifice were specific Purification, Prayers, Supplication - Holochaust = whole burnt, used in two cases (homicide and hero cults) - Sacrifice: Greeks used to sacrifice on several occasions o Even in their homes o Human Sacrifice: only accounts of myths for this o Polyexene and Iphigenia (both women) – human sacrifice o A stag very dear to Artemis was killed, only way to please her again was to sacrifice a human o She was then pleased again - Katharma : purification place - Exegetai: official ministers of Apollo, some appointed directly by the sanctuary of Delphi or elected by the people of Athens Prayers - way to worship gods - prayers often have a patters, respect and praise then ask for what they want - Prayers to Olympians  raise their hands to the sky and may even hold an offering in their other hand - Prayers to gods of underworld  direct their hands to the soil Supplication - Zeus Kikesios (protector of suppliants) - Citizens have their own rights - Strangers have none - Safe zone- temple, touching altar or items - A way to beg someone: much touch their knees, in some cases this causes concern - Ex: Nausicaa (princess) was washing some clothing with her companions o Odysseus arrived to the island during the night of a storm o Lost everything, including his clothes o He was naked and covered in the salt of the sea o When he awoke her heard the voices of girls o Only the daughter of Alkinoos (Nausicaa) stood up when he arrived, for Athena had put bravery in her heart o He did not want to touch her knees an frighten her, so he said “I am touching your knees, O queen, But are you mortal or goddess”. Temenos = sanctuary Naos = temple Communities made decisions to build temples, there were many different types of Greek temples Structure of Athena Partheons - made of ivory and gold - middle of the helmet is placed the likeness of a sphinx - on the other side are griffins in relief - it is upright, with a tunic reaching to the feet - on her breast is the head od Medusa in work of ivory - she holds the statue of Victory about four cubits high - in the other hand a spear - at her feet lies a shield and near the spear is a serpent Athene Polis – of the city, as polis mean city - most civic and sacred functions were under the patronage of the gods - Boule (council) - Zeus Boulaios and Artemis Boulaios - Aroga = under Zeus Agoraios and Hermes Agoraios Apollon Patroios – of our ancestors - Athena Phratria and Zeus Phratrois – decent group, claimed to decent from common ancestors - most names are dedicated to gods - beginning of the year was the summer months - new moon to following new moon, (based on this cycle) - *only need to know months where festivals are held Panathenaia 1) Great Panathenaia: held every four years 2) Panathenaia: a smaller one held every year - procession ran through Agora (market place) animals sacrificed Hekatombaion 28 - birthday of Athena - who is the daughter of Metis (wisdom, skill and Zeus;s first wife) and Zeus - Zeus swallowed Metis because she was so skillful - Zeus had a terrible headache, so someone came and hit him on the head with an axe - Athena was born - She is the patron of the city Athens, as the city is names after her More on Panathenia - slaves were not allowed to participate - there were many contests o Musical o Rhaposdic o When there is a contest, the musician always uses a step base o Nike always declares the winner o Poetry, always accompanied by music Torch Race - important race - runners ran through the city, Nike would proclaim the winner - the winner’s torch would be used to light the utters of the cows on fire during sacrifice Athletic Contests - prizes were amphora’s filled with olive oil (the oil produced in Attica, according to tradition they believed that the oil was from a sacred olive from Athena where all olives originate) - the amphora’s had a specific shape called the Panathnaic Amphora - they always had an image of Athena on one side, and an inscription, and an image of the athletic contest itself - Examples: o Chariot racing o Horse riding o Foot-race o Wrestling (pancretion – with no rules except you could not put your fingers inside the opponents mouth/nose/eyes) o Boxing o Pentathlon o Foot-race for armed warriors o Apobates (had a chariot that warriors got off many times –difficult) Anthesteria – The flower festival - this was a festival in honor of Dionysos - it is held in the month of (January to February, which is also around the time where spring began to blossom) - This festival is related to agriculture, but specific to wine (dionysos is the god of wine) First Day: Pithoigia (jar openings) - new wine was opened and ready to be consumed Second Day: Khoes (wine jugs) - The “holy marriage” of Dionysos and the wife of Archon Basileus (King Archon) - People would drink a lot and only their own wine - There were specific wine jugs used during the day - Only woman allowed in festival were wife of King Archon (wedding) and the priestess of Dionysos, no woman drank or were admitted to the party Why do we have children represented on a jug of wine? - During the festivals the little boys were given their first sip of wine - The wine was diluted, and they then had a wish to reach their adulthood - They were only three years old, as it was uncommon for many children to reach that age with no vaccinations and antibiotics at the time Third Day: Khutrai (pots) “get out Keres (evil demons), the Anthesteria is over” - They boiled lots of veggies are ate them together - Slaves who were admitted would drink with their masters, and their masters may even serve them - During this festival there was also a ritual that has not been explained yet, A man prepares to eave a child on a swing, which were placed on pots, and they recited some words – maybe related to another tale which refers to a girl who was the daughter of the an to whom Dionysos taught. She was looking for her father but her father was killed by drunk shepherds, when she found her father’s body she hung herself by the tree where the body was found - She was then transformed into a star, and she reached the sky. So the idea is that from the underworld it is a wish to go to the heavens Eleusinian Mysteries - There is an important mythological tale behind it - Demeter, a sister of Zeus, and a goddess of agriculture, married Zeus (she is also known as the mother of the earth) she is also represented with ears of corn - They have a daughter Persephone, who is also known by the name Kore which means maiden - Persephone is also represented with ears of corn, and with torches. She was beautiful - A brother of Zeus (Hedas – God of the underworld and of the richness of soil), wanted to marry Persephone - Zeus gave his blessing without asking Demeter, and while Persephone was gathering flowers Hedas came and took her down to the underworld with him - Demeter didn’t know where her daughter had gone, she could hear her cry but could not find her. She roamed for her, and stayed with various people - During her journey she met Hekate, goddess of the night who could also hear Persephone’s cries - Demeter was so upset that she stopped eating, and only ate food of the gods. The agriculture on earth for the humans declined, and there was a risk of a famine - Helios (the god of the sun), told Demeter where her daughter was and she became very upset. Zeus then sent Hermes to the underworld to fetch his daughter. - Hermes persuaded Hades to let her go, with an agreement that Persephone would spend 6 months on earth and then 6 months in the underworld with her husband - Triptolemos was a priest of Eleusis (Where Demeter was, ad where she finally was reunited with her daughter), and he was very kind to Demeter. Demeter then told him the secrets of agriculture, which he went around and spread the secrets to the humans - He drove a winged chariot to move quickly, with snakes around the wheels as snakes were linked to the earth (did not walk, they slithered on the earth) Week 4 – Lecture 1 The Eleusin Cult - Lesser mysteries o Peformed at Agrai during Anthesterion (Jan- Feb) to purify and introduce the greater mysteries - Greater Mysteries o Performed in Eleusis in Beodromion (Aug – Sept) after the procession of Athens - The Initiates are called mustai - There were three stages, and the initiates of the last stage were called epoptai Eleusinian Mysteries - King Archon – overseer - Hierophantes – chief priest (meaning revealer of holy things) from the Eumolpidai family - Daidoukhos (The torch holder) from the Kerykes family Great Mysteries - open to men, women and even slaves - foreign people could also participate - Must be Greek speakers - Pollution by bloodguilt was not allowed - Some messengers went to the Greek cities to announce the incoming ritual and asked for a truce for 55 days, they needed a truce to eliminate any risk (since all Greek speakers were allowed, not only Athenians) - Boedremion 14 o Scared objects moved to Athens, in the Eleusinion o The ephebes (ephebai youth 18-19 years old) escorted the sacred objects (hiera) - Boedremion 15 o People met in Agora and were invited to take part in mysteries, except those who couldn’t speak Greek (or impure/homicides) - Boedremion 16 o Initiate the sea, people who went to Phaleron washed themselves in the sea and sacrificed a pig/piglet o Sea water was a purification tool (salt) o It was a common offering to the Goddess Demeter - Boedremion 19/20 o After the other rituals, the procession moved to Eleusis, bringing back the sacred objects o People brought back myrtle branches (bakkhoi) a walking stick and a sack o The procession was led by Iakkhos, ho represents the cry of Persephone when she was abducted o They reach Eleusis at night, which is NW of Athens - On the following days, they performed rituals, sacrifices and fasting then the secret part of the ritual. In the walled sanctuary, where only the initiates were allowed – they experiences rituals and could see the sacred objects (heira) and were taught on sacred matters - Telesterion - the place where the rights were performed - It was a square building with lots o columns inside, and it was windowless. There was no possibility of seeing what happened insdie - Hades poured fertility upon the earth, from a cornucopia and Persephone ploughed it – images can help us understand the Greek worlds Apatouria - main festival of the phratries (the decent group) - festival celebrated in all Ionian cities - it was a state festival of Athena - occurred in the fall (second half of Pyanopsion) - it is important because it is where Father’s introduced their children to the Phratries - The children were then considered “legit” - 3 day festival - On the third day – called Koureotis – was known of the day of youths/day of hair cutting - New brides were introduced to the Phratries as well - Khoai (drinking offering) for the deceased members of the Phratry - Children participated in competitions in rhapsody - Dealt with a lot of issues as well (arguments between Phratry, or if member’s needed a loan) - The Phratries were under the protection of Athena and Zeus Demos – (plural is demoi) = meaning both people, and meaning “deme” = small village or town - A person could only be considered as an Athenian if their mother and father were Athenian as well - Athenian full name = first name, father’s name, followed by the name of their deme - Only men listed in this list - Men could only vote, therefore they were the only names needed to be known - People had identification tablets - Deme festivals o Local cults:  Gods under distinctive titles  Heroes How did Greeks still believe in these gods even if they were so evil sometimes? - Still important to worship them properly Mutilation of the gods - Athena 415 BCE - Among others were charged - Alkibaides and Andokides Week 4 – Lecture 2 - Agon – competition, friends versus enemies Honour and Shame - material gifts - honour or public acclaim - reciprocated awards Phoinix tries to persuade Akhilleus to return to the combat - “No come while gifts are still to be had, and Greek will treat you like a god. If you plunge into killing fields with no such gifts, you will not be so respected, even though you turn defeat into victory.” - Figure: Aias (Ajax) carrying the corpse of Achilles on a vase - There was a ballot for the armour of the dead Achilles - Aias’ get angry when armour is not awarded to him, and kills himself - Strigil: used to scrape oil, dust and sweat from ones body Athletic Competitions - Pan-Hellenic Games - Olympia - Nemea - Delphi - Isthmus at Corinth Olympic Games - administered by the city of Elis - In honour of Zeus - First Olympic games 776 BCE - Every four years for five days in the summer - Age-categories - No musical contests - Prize for winners was an olive crown - Olympic truce o All states taking part in the Games were forbidden to go to war, carry on a dispute in the law courts or execute criminals There was a range of places where Greek colonies were found - All of these colonies participated in the games - Women not allowed to participate or watch - “it is the law of Elis to cast down any woman who is caught at the games, or even on the other side of Alpheios” - Kallipateira: pretended to be a man, so she could see her son compete. As she leaped over the fence in excitement her dress showed her womanly parts - She was not punished too harshly - Olympia is not a city – where the games are held- but rather a sanctuary Olympia, Hippodrome - chariot races – chariots are expensive - Race was with four horses - Chariots made of wood, painted nicely, four horses needed caring for, groomer.. very expensive - An owner did not compete, hired an athlete - Owner could enter multiple chariots - Owner received the crown, athlete received a ribbon - Women WERE allowed to be owners - Kynika – princess – was first woman owner Neman Games - from 573 BCE - every two years in the summer, at the second and fourth year of the Olympiad - Olympiad (period of four years) - In honor of Zeus - There were musical contests - Victors – olive crown initially, form Persian war onward, prize was a crown of wild celery - Chariot races, foot races, javelin, discourse Pythian Games - in honor of Apollo - At Delphi - Every four years for five days in the summer at the 3 year of each Olympiad - Winners received laurel (laurel is the flower of Apollo), then later apples Isthmian Games - In honor of Poseidon - Form 582 BCE st rd - Every two years, in the spring at the 1 and 3 year - Also musical contests - Original prize: crown of pine branches – replaced by dry crown of celery - Poseidon was very linked to horses *men competed naked Rotaiton: Year 1 – Olymic Games/ Isthmia games Year 2 – Neman Games Year 3 – Isthmin games/ Pythian Games Year 4 – Nemean Games - used to date events - all Greek people went by this while they had their own months and years different Women Athletic Contests - Heraia - In honor of Hera the goddess of wool - Only a running race - Women weaved a robe to offer her, then planned the event - Separated by ages - Hair is let down, dress above knee and right breast out - Winners receive an olive crown - Part of cow is sacrificed to Hera Victorious Athletes become popular 1) Phayllos of Kroton - victorious winner - jumped fifty five feet - we are not sure if it was one jump or multiple jumps - almost 16 meters - jumpers jumped with weights 2) Milon of Kroton - six victories - in wrestling - tied cord to head, held breath and broke the chord *Women were attracted to victorious athletes Athletes (Victorious ones) became Politicians - Milon was appointed general 511/510 BCE, elected by people, defeated city of Sybaria - Phayllos 480 BCE fought in the battle of Salamis with a ship Week 5 Lecture 1 Philotimia :love of honour, ambition Atimia: dishonor Time: honour Kroisos and his son Atys - Kroisos did not want his son to join the hunting party - Ayts is angry, wonders what people will think of him - “either let me go hunt, or give me good reason why I should obey your wishes” Ostracism - after 490 BCE (battle of Marathon) - 10 years of exile – but no loss of status, property was not confiscated - ostrakon: potshed (used for a voting tablet) - Procedure o Once a year, Athenians meet in the agora and are asked if they wish to hold an Ostracism o Is votes say yes: they meet two months later and each citizen brings his ostrakon o If at least 6000 votes are cast, the man with the most votes is exiled o 10 days to leave o return? Penalty was death o Ostrka cast against: Aristeides, Temistokles, Kimon, Kallias and Perikles Philoi - friends Ekhthroi – enemies - distinction between the enemies at work and the ones in daily life - Athenians are known for being quite religious - They moved charges against suspects, but charges may have been moved because they wanted revenge or because someone was offended - The person who moved the charge and the person being charged had a right to speak during the trial - Person HAD to promise and make it clear that they were not charging them for revenge Relatives who act against each other do exist - Peloponnesian war - Two parties in favor of Sparta and one in favor of Athens – members of the same family could be supporters of either - Political interest was most important - In the same period, the Athenians are acting in Sicily in Syracuse, people of Syracuse want to win AND want to honor the Athenians, and punish them Myth - Jason was a prince, and his father was overthrown by the king of Parius, and he then became king, and he knew he should not be the legit king - The uncle of Jason knew Jason was a person who could over throw him as he did with his brother an he sent him away to get the golden fleece in Colchis - Jason had to take a ship to reach the far away place, the ship was named Argo which means sails of the ship - This happened before the Trojan war - Medeia from Aia in the Colchis is a niece of a famous witch - Jason reached Colchis, it was possible for him to take the golden fleece, because Medeia fell in love with him - She helped use her magic to attain the fleece, and she was so in love with him that she killed her brother - The fleece was protected by a dragon, but Jason was able to get it - Pelias (uncle) did not want to give up his reign - Jason married the king of Coreeth’s daughter - Medeia was very upset, and she killed all their children - She also killed the daughter of Coreith and the king himself, she wanted revenge - Medeia then flew on a chariot driven by dragons, and she is not Greek - She is from the east and dressed like them - Jason tries to follow her with a sword - Medeia has no home and no family (she killed them) she becomes very bitter and determined against enemies - Same concept of how Syracuse people wanted Athenians to feel, defeat and dishonor Xenia – guest-friendship Xenos – a friend from abroad - assumption of perpetuity of Xenia. Betrayal of it is considered an offence to the god’s - the beginning of a friendship is marked with a ceremony - Xenia is a binding relationship, and does not expire with death - Passes on to all male members of the family - Xenos is extremely important - Ex. Diomoedes and Glaukos were about to fight each other, until they realized their grandparents were Xenos, and could not fight oe another - This friendship also brought an exchange of gifts - Generally words pronounced: “Agesioaes, make you my guest friend” with a reply of “I accept your friendship” - Ex. Etearchos made Themison his guest friend, asked him to throw his daughter in the sea. Themison could not and dipped her but did not kill her in the sea. God’s punished him and took away his sons and army Polemos = war Polemios = one hostile to, at war with Promenia = bond of trust between a polis and a prominent individual outside Proxenos = was usually a citizen of the state which he served and not of the state he represented Hubris - Intentionally dishonoring behavior - Not a religious term - Insulting or physical force or any sort of violence - Hubristic acts are also sexual assaults and the insolence of accepted inferiors (women and slaves) - Violence after drunkenness was common Symposium = drinking together, male and aristocratic activity - every stage was marked by a traditional religious observance - andron = men’s dining room - sophron = self controlled man - soprosune = self control Wealth - without working – live only by working - ________________________________________________________ AFTER MIDTERM Women were given as wives as soon as they reached puberty - Statues: Artemis (goddess of moon and hunting) and young girls at different stages of their life Classic Wedding - bride was given with gifts to the husband, but there were rules regarding the gifts - bride was given to the house of the husband in order to ensure a succession - dowry is not given to the husband, remains in possession of the wife – give to her sons - divorce: possible, dowry was given back to father of bride - both could ask for divorce - the houses of the wife and husband are then tied, and there is a kinship between them not just an alliance - attic bathing vessel – had representations of the wedding, brides on chariots and brides unveiling herself (common figure seen) - brides are veiled and unveil at house in front of husband - when bride reaches house it marks the start of the new life - she then was to bear children, raise them - she took care of matters within the house, food storage, clothing - When women reached the age for marriage, they should already be able to cook, clean, weave, so they had to be taught by her mother. The mother-in-law would also still be there for help. Lysias, On the murder of Eratosthenes - this man was married to a much younger woman, and his wife had an affair with a younger man. She met this man during the funeral of her mother-in-law - few occasions woman could leave, but with the help of her slave it was possible for her to begin an affair - he then killed this man - according to the law, if a man caught another man in the act he could kill them without any charges - the family thought he could have planned this murder, already knew they were having an affair and planned to catch them - His speech “ watched wife from a far, then once she has his child he thought that had tied them very close. But my mothers death led to tis man seducing my wife” - “Any woman who works on her beauty when her man is gone, indicates herself as being a whore. She has no reason to show her painted face outside the door unless she is looking for trouble” – Euripides, Electra - Exenophon, Oikonomikos – passes to what the women are supposed to do in their houses – “ to stay indoors, help dispatch servants who work outside, and supervise those who work inside. You will receive incoming revenue, and be responsible to any surplus. Make garments with the wool delivered, and take care of the dried grain, keep it fit for consumption. You will have to see that any of the ill servants get proper treatment” Penelope - famous - she avoided the marriage, she worked all day and destroyed what she did during the day, told them when she had finished then she would marry one of them The only women who had freedom, where the: Courtesans = hetairai Prostitutes = pornai Concubines = pallakai - could join men in the symposium Aspasia – was a concubine - she came to Athens, and opened a brothel - Man Pericles loved her and could not marry her, he was Athenian, and the sons who would be from this relationship would not be legitimate - He asked for an exception to the law, for his son who was born with Aspasia could be considered an Athenian, but this son died - Aspasia was very well educated Prostitution was legal in Athens - income for the city itself - many of the women came from other areas - many became famous as well as the brothels - made them wealthy - their culture was different, we cannot apply our modern thoughts regarding it to them - to be hetero/homosexual was not a life choice for them - A man only had homosexual relationships, he became a target and name could be erased - Considered normal to have attraction for a person of the same sex - A young boy/teenager who doesn’t have yet a full beard on his face - This was accepted by families with a young boy - Homosexual relations Erastes = older lover Eromenos – beloved - father had to give consent to the relationship - presence of the erastes and eromenos was common in the Greek world - life of a male and female was separate until the age of marriage, bride was fairly young with the husband being much older (30+) - to disobey, (bride), was an act of hubris - common for men to have relationships with boys before getting married to a bride as men did not get married until a later age and do not associate with women until then Gymnasium – similar to Athenian word, root word from naked as men competed naked in competitions – where many relations between men could occur Education - parents sent them to teachers if they felt they could not teach the child themselves - school was very different than our schools these days - read, write and math - teachers got paid very little, but were paid from the parents of the children - music was also taught - sport, warriors, taught to fight every year. Important to have a trained body - grammatistes - elementary teacher - grammata – letters of the alphabet - “when a boy knew his letters and was read to proceed from spoken to written, teacher would make him sit down and read poets and learn them by heart. He would learn lots, find plenty of advice and praise the past men, as they were good models for them” - Wax tablet: grammar practice, writing lines - When the tablets were not used, they could close and carried - Ancient Greek music was very different than our music - Khoros = dace/chorus - Paidotribes = sport trainer - Gynmasion = gymnastic school - Palarstra = wrestling school Females were also given some education, able to read - Their education was at home, generally they were not sent to a school out of the home - It was still important for them to knowhow to read and write and do basic math - On top of the duties of the household - They would also learn how to dance (sacred to the god Artemis) th Sophistes – sage or wise man, by the end of the 5 century had a specific meaning of Sophist - itinerant professor of higher education - they were not a school of a single movement - their writings are lsot - they claimed to teach aretei – goodness and excellence - expensive to have them teach you - they were the first ones to stress more of language and rhetoric skills - It was very important to be very skilled in rhetoric for politicians (ex) - Some are very famous o Protagoras from Abdera (fl. 5 C. BCE) (fl = floruit = flourished) o Gorgair from Leontini – Priase of Helen, peitho = persuasion (his teaching) Week 7 Lecture 3 Socrates - charged of impiety (introduction of new gods) and corruption of young men, was put to death by drinking hemlock in 399 BCE - Important sources about Socrates: o Works of: Xenophon, Plato, Aristophanes and Aristotle - Plato found his philosophical school around 387 BCE, it was called Academy - Aristophanes (clouds) first version 423 BCE o Strepsiades wants to escape his debts, he enrolls his son Pheidippides into the school of Socrates, so that he might learn how to defeat the creditors in court. The son learns disrespect for social mores and beats his father after an argument. Father sets school on fire. - Isokrates set up the first University in Athens Work and slavery - plouging - “Whenever advice needs to be given about running the city, anyone can contribute” (rich to poor to slaves) - shoe makers - pottery workshop - blacksmith - Athenian law approves on silvers coinage - Astunomi = officials of civic order - Agoranomoi = officials of the market - Metronomoi = officials of weights and measures - Sitophulakes = officials for grain supply Bottomry Load - first arrested in 412 BCE Slavery - Aristotlem politics – an animate or ensouled piece of property - Woman slaves as well Metics - after residence of one month, a non-Athenian Greek “barbarous” (foreign)  had to register as a metic - Men had to pay a drakhme (per month) while woman paid half - Had to have prostates = patron - Had to be registered in a deme - Were not allowed to own real property in Attica - They had to serve in the arm as long as they li
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