TIMELINE OF ROME
509 – Rome is a Republic
496 – Battle of Lake Regillus – Romans vs. Latin League, outside Tuscullum. Romans won, so it didn’t
have to join the Latin League.
*493 – Foedus Cassianum – Roman’s and Latin League agreed to unite to provide mutual assistance in
times of hostile attack.
458 – Cincinnatus liberated Roman garrison which had been trapped by the Aequi in the mountains.
396 – Camillus’ 10 year siege on the Etruscan city of Veii won; Romans annexed area in the first great
expansion of Roman power.
390 – Gauls won Battle of Allia outside Rome, sacked Rome. Camillus appointed dictator. Well fortified
Alpenine Hill and Roman citadel survived 7 month siege before ransom paid to the Gauls.
351 – Etruscans abandon their attacks, beg for peace.
349 BC – Romans drove off Gauls, became champions of the Italian people.
*343-341 BC – first Samnite War. Campanian town of Capua appealed for aid against the attacking
Samnites. Rome agreed, to gain foothold in Campania in the south. Rome often came to aid of helpless
cities to expand their power. Peace treaty concluded in 341 BC, with no definitive victor on either side.
340-338 – Revolt of the Latin League. Latin league tried to fight Rome for their independence; Rome
won, and the league was dissolved. Those Latin cities lost the rights of marriage, trade, migration with
each other, but kept them with Rome. Some Latin communities fully incorporated into Rome, became
full Roman citizens.
339 – Senones (Gauls) signed peace treaty with Romans, temporarily removing that threat.
338 – Volsci signed treaty with Rome after their chief city, Antium, fell.
327-304 BC – 2 Samnite War. Romans besieged Greek city of Naples. Samnites came to Naples’ aid.
* 321 BC – Battle of Caudine Forks – Romans lost reallllly bad. Samnite forces ambushed Roman army in
mountain pass, got them to surrender.
312 – Via Appia,rdome’s first paved highway, built to facilitate transportation of troops to Campania.
298-290 BC – 3 Samnite War – Rome secured her leadership. Hostilities about Romans being in the
south, in Lucania.
295 BC – Battle of Sentinum – Romans won decisive victory in Umbria. Defeated Samnites.
291 BC – Battle of Aquilonia – Defeated Smanites. Forced them to make peace, confiscated some
Samnite land, established a colony of... ulusia?
285 – Greek city of Thurii appealed to Rome for protection, not ally Tarentium, from ... something.
Rome helped, but then left a garrison. Aroused Tarentium suspicion. Roman ships weren’t allowed in
their gulf (treaty, 334?). They sunk the war ships, and attacked a garrison. Enlisted support of King
(second cousin of Alexander the Great). Pyrrhus.
280 BC – Battle of Heraclea -> Pyrrhic victory! Romans lost 7000, cavalry thrown into confusion by
elephants. Pyrrhus, also lost a lot (4000). Expression “A Pyrrhic victory” – a victory gained a terrible cost.
Pyrrhus marched forward to Parneste?, eventually forced to turn back.
279 – Ausculum – same result. Pyrrhus won at terrible cost. He spent next couple years aiding the
Greeks in v south (Sicily) who were being attacked by the Carthaginians. 275 – Battle of Beneventum Romans won! Pyrrhus left to Greece, leaving garrison in Tarentum. After
Pyrrhus’ death in ... Tarentum garrison was removed, they became a Roman ally.
264 – Etruscan city of Volsinii defeated.
264-241 – First Punic War - Rome won. Sicily was incorporated as the first of Rome’s many province.
Followed somewhat later by Corsica and Sardinia.
264 – Start of war. Mamertines besieged by Syracusans in Messana, asked Carthage for support. Then
asked Rome for help getting rid of the Carthaginians.
262 – Rome besieged and won the Carthaginian city of Agrigentum, on S coast of Siciliy.
260 – with new navy, Rome won major battle off NE Siciliy near Mylae. First big Roman win in this Punic
256 – Rome won another naval victory off Ecnomus, invaded Africa.
255 – Rome suffered huge losses, many ships lost to storms.
254 – Rome captured Panormus (modern day Palarno).
247 – Carthaginian Hamilcar Barca (Hannibal’s father) attacked Sicily, and up Italian coast. Rome rebuilt
the navy, took Lilybaeum. Carthaginian had to negotiate peace. Agreed to evacuate Sicily and pay Rome.
241 – Sicily becomes first Roman province. When Carthaginian garrisons at Sardinia revolted, Rome
came to their aid. Took Sardinia and Corsica.
229-228 – First Illyrian War. Illyrian pirates had attacked merchant vessels belonging to Italian allies,
who appealed to Rome for help. A Roman diplomatic mission to Queen Teuta of Corsaea failed, so
Romans attacked in 1rst Illyrian War, sent ships into Adriatic off Corsaea. A large army was also sent to
attack Appolonia and Irackia in Illyria. The Roman army and warships easily prevailed.
226 – Ebro Treaty. Hasdrubal and Carthage get free reign of Spain S of the river Ebro. He can’t go N of
220 – Gauis Flaminius oversaw construction of Via Flaminius.
220-219 – Second Illyrian War. Demetrius of Pharos was rewarded for deserting Teuts with the island of
Pharos. A decade later, he attacked Illyrian cities under Roman protection, attacked Greek city, and
practiced piracy (bit of an idiot?). Rome crushed him.
219 – Hannibal, Hasdrubal’s successor, besieged Saguntum.
218-201 – Second Punic War – Hannibal vs Scipio. Hannibal crossed Spain, invaded Italy with his
elephants, inflicted 3 humiliating defeats on Romans in their own soils (Trevia, Lake Tacea, Cami?).
Romans eventually prevailed at Battle of Zana. Defeated Hannibal in his own native land (N. Africa).
218 - Hannibal planned to cross the Pyrinese mountains, go over the alps, descend in Italy. He hoped to
enlist recruits along the way and break up Rome’s federation of allies wherever possible. He departed
from New Carthage in 218; army included elephants. He crossed the Pyrinese and the Roman river
massilia before Scipio could head him off. Scipio sails back, waits for Hannibal in cisalpine gul. Attacks
Hannibal at Ticinus.
218 – Battle of Ticinus River - Romans lose. Hannibal crossed Po River!
218 – Battle of Trebia River – Romans super defeated, lost N Italy. Hannibal kept going, crossed
Apinines, invaded Etruria.
218 – Lex Claudia – senators prevented from engaging