Timeline of Rome
149 – Lex Capurnia – extortion court created (Quaestio de rebus repetundis). The jurors were
133 – Gaius Marius served at Numantia in Spain
125-121 – Romans crushed resistance of the Gaullic tribes.
123-122 – Lex Acilia – jurors of the extortion court are now equites.
121 – Transalpine Gaul becomes the 8 Roman province. It was later known as the Narbonensis
119 – Gaius Marius was tribune
115 – Gaius Marius was made praetor
114 – Gaius Marius was made proprietor of Farther Spain.
112-105 – Jugurthine War in Numibia -> King Micipsa, son of Massinissa, had two sons and had
adopted Jugurtha. Jugurtha wanted the throne.
112 – Jugurtha besieged Cirta, Numibia. Won, slaughtered all the defenders, including Italian
merchants trapped within. Senate declared war on Jugurtha.
109 – Jugurtha defeats Roman army; then Quintus Caecilius Metellus was given command.
Gaius Marius was one of his senior commanders.
107 – Sulla served as quaestor in Jugurthine War; persuaded Jugurtha’s ally Bachus to betray
Jugurtha. Claimed he alone was responsible for winning the war – pissed off Marius, who was
his consul and commanding officer at the time.
107 – Gaius Marius served his first consulship (became a novus homo).
106 – Lex Servilia – jurors of extortion court were senators.
105 – Battle of Arausio in Transalpine Gaul against Germanic tribes, most disastrous Roman
defeat since Cannae.
104 – Marius was re-elected for consul, against precedent, due to fear of invasion from Germanic
northern tribes (Cimbri and Teutones). Remained consul until 100, even though 100 was
peaceful – he was very popular.
104-101 – Rome went to war against the Cimbri and Teutones
104-100 – Rome subdued slave revolt in Sicily.
103 – Lucius Appuleius Saturninus (Populares) sponsored a law against treason (in latin,
102 – Battle of Aquae Sextiae vs Teutones – Marius defeated the Teutones.
101 – Battle of Vercellae vs Cimbri – Rome won.
101 – Lex Servilia was repealed – the jurors of the extortion court were equites.
100 – Tribune Saturninus was allied with Marius and Glaucia; reintroduced Gaius Gracchus’
grain distribution; introduced Agrarian laws for Marius’ veterans in Gaul, Sicily, Greece,
Macedonia; introduced military law supporting mobilization of troops against Cicilian pirates
and King Mithradates VI of Pontus.
99 – consul Glaucia killed a political rival, Marius withdraws his support. Senate invoes “Final
Decree,” demands Marius restores order. Despite his efforts, Galucia and Saturninus were killed. Marius left for Asia, leaving the Optimates in charge.
91 – Tribune Marcus Livius Drusus the younger, son of Gaius Gracchus, proposed three major
reforms ( add 300 equites to the senate, make extortion court jurours ½ senate and ½ equites;
subsidize grain and land allotments for the poor; grant Roman citizenship to Italian allies. Drusus
90-88 – Social War. Rome vs the Marsi and the Samnites. The Italian allies were angered at the
assassination of Drusus (who proposed that they be granted citizenship). A praetor speaking
against Italian citizenship in Ausculum, Italy, was murdered. Italian federacy established
headquarters at Corfu.
90-88 – Marius returned from Asia to offer his services to the senate; assigned as a Legate (not a
great position) in Italy’s social war.
90 – War on two fronts: Etruria in north and Campania in south. In south, Italians were kicking
ass, gained control of Apulea, Lucania (spelling?).
90 – Lex Julia – Julius Caesar passed after a consul was killed in battle; gave Roman citizenship
to all allies loyal to Rome (that is, all latin and Italian allies who were not fighting against Rome
in the social war).
89 – Lex Plautia-Papiria – Roman citizenship for all free members of Italian allies, even those at
war if they stopped fighting and reported to a praetor. (Plautius Silvanus and Papirius Carbo –
tribunes who passed it)
89 – Lex Pompeia (Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo (father of Pompei the great)) – granted Roman
citizenship for all in the Cisalpine Gaul; Latin rights to those north of the river Po. This law, plus
the the Lex Plautia-Papiria caused the revolt to collapse.
89-85 – First Mithridatic War: Mithradites tries to take Bithynia and Cappadocia from King
Nicomedes; Rome makes him give it back, incites Nicomedes to attack Mithradites.
88 – Sulla (Optimate) made consul. It was decided he would have command in Mithraditic war.
88 – Tribune Pulius Sulpicius proposes a bill to transfer future command of Mithraditic war from
Sulla to Marius. It passes, Sulla flees Rome.
88 – Sulla returns to Rome with his army from Campania (after finishing off the Samnites still
fighting the Social War, siege of Nolla). Sulla marches on Rome. Sulpicius murdered, Marius
flees to North Africa. Sulla’s reforms: cancelled all of Sulpicius’ laws (ie, gave himself
command of Mithridatic war); senatorial approval required for all legislation (suck it, tribunes!
Motions could no longer be introduced in concilium plebis!); Comitia Centuriata became main
legislative body. Basically, Sulla was acting in the Senate’s interest. Fuck the plebs.
87 – Sulla, confident in the Optimates’ power in Rome, goes back east to fight Mithridatic War.
Seiged Athens and port. Sacked in 86, then went North to face Mithridates.
87 – Consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna tries to re-enact Sulpicius’ law after Sulla left for the east.
His co-consul, Optimate Gnaeus Octavius, drove Cinna out of Rome.
87 – Marius marches on Rome with army; many killed, including Consul Octavius. Consul
Cinna reinstated. Marius entered 7 consulship, but died a few days later.
86 – Athens and port were sacked by Sulla. 86 – Consul Lucius Valerius Flaccus arrived in Greece with the army, but Sulla would not give
up command. Flaccus marched on Asia instead, recovered Macedonia and Thrace. He was then
murdered in a mutiny of his troops by Flavius Fimbria.
Fimbria recovered Asia all the way down to Pergamum.
85 – Lucius Lucullus brought fleet to Sulla, beat Mithridates’ fleet, provided Sulla with safe
passage to Asia.
85 - battle of Chaeronea – Romans outnumbered but better disciplined; won
85 – battle at Orchomenus – Romans kicked ass in this battle!
85 – Mithridatic War ends with the Leace of Dardanus. Sulla wanted peace to return to Rome
(Marian party had regained upper hand!), Mithridates’ position was getting precarious.
Mithradates had to relinquish Cappadocia, Bethynia, Roman province of Asia, and all his other
conquests in Asia minor; had to surrender part of his fleet; and pay money to Rome. He was
allowed to keep his kingdom of Pontus. This peace treaty wasn’t popular with the people.
85 - Sulla reorganized province of Asia. Then Sulla punished Asia with huge fees for its
rebelliousness. Asia had to borrow huge amounts of money, went into debt.
84 – Cinna now in 4 consulship in a row, worried about Sulla returning. Cinna raised an
opposing force, which then mutinied and murdered Cinna in south Italy. His co-consul, Carbo,
did not appoint another consul to take Cinna’s place.
83 – Sulla returned to Rome, demanded restitution of his property. Carbo, the consul, said no.
Sulla defeated the consuls Carbo and younger Marius (Marius’ adopted son) and their armies in
Brundisium, the eastern port. Aided by Marcus Licinius Crassus (went on to become richest man
in Rome) and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the great). [Pompey the great had his own
army, which now fought on the Sullan side]
83-82: Second mithridatic War. Governor Lucious Murena, governor of Asia, attacked
Mithridates. Ended when Sulla called Murena back home.
82 – Sulla won at Sacriportus, against Marius’ adopted son. Marius returned to Rome. Sulla then
marched against Carbo in Etruria N of Rome. Carbo fled Italy.
82 – Battle at the Colline Gate, Praeneste. Marius and Samnites vs Sulla outside Rome. Sulla’s
wing almost collapsed, Crassus’ wing saved the day. Marius commited suicide.
82 - Lex Valeria - Sulla appointed Dictator (82-79) for unlimited term, gave unprecedented
power. Sulla’s actions were therefore validated in advance (legalized the reign of terror)
82-81 – Reign of terror. Sulla clearly in charge of entire Roman world, went mad with power.
82-81 – Sulla proscriptions. His enemies, 2600 equites and 90 senators were proscribed. Their
names were posted in the forum, declared outlaws, some even had prices on their heads. They
were essentially killed without trial.
80: Sulla had resigned, but was appointed consul. Read about his reforms please.
79: Quintus Metellus Pius sent to be proconsul of further Spain, crush revolt of Marians lead by
Sertorius; failed, Sertorius won much of further Spain.
78: Sulla dies peacefully at his estates.
78: Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, consul. Recalled Marian exiles, renewed grain distribution to the poor. Although an Optimate, he championed the pissed off poor.
78: Lepidus sent by senate to crush revolt in Etruria. Instead, he led the rebellion with an army
from Cisalpine Gaul, his former province.
77: Lepidus marches on Rome. Pompey saves the day. Lepiuds’ troops flee to Spain under
Perperna, joint Quintus Sertoriuss, a Marian renegade.
77: Pompey sent out with extraordinary command despite his stupidly young age (29). Optimates
were seriously lacking in good generals.
76, 75: Pompey loses twice to Sertorius.
75: Consul Gauis Cotta passed AURELIAN LAW. Reversed Sulla’s edicts on tribunes; tribunes
could now hold higher magistracies. Jurors were now drawn equally from 3 gourps: senators,
equates, and tribunes of the treasury (tribune aerarii, similar to equestrians, business people)
74: King Nicomedes IV of Bithynia dies and bequeaths his kingdom to Rome. Bithynia becomes
a Roman province. Mithridates wants it; starts the third war (74/73 – 63).
74: Lucius Lucullus appointed consul, in charge of Mithridatic war; Governor Cotta of Bithynia
controlled the naval fleet.
74, 73: Pompey starts regaining ground in Spain.
74, 73: Sertorius betrayed and assassinated by Perperna, who takes control.
73: Crassus is praetor.
73: Mithridates invades Bithynia, then the Roman province of Asia.
73: Lucullus drives Mithridatets out of Rome; has awesome naval victory; recovers Bithynia;
invades a bit of Pontus.
73-71: Spartacus and the slave war in Italy. Overran Campania and S Italy, as all the serious
armies were fighting in Spain and the east.
72: Crassus appointed extraordinary command to defeat Spartacus.
72: Lucullus routes Mithridates’ army; he is forced to take refuge with his son in law King
Tigranes II of Armenia.
72/71 – Lucullus subjugated whole of Pontus by systematic capturing its fortified towns. Then
returned to his own province of Asia. Cotta bes