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Classical Studies
CLST 201
Christina Zaccagnino

Week 9- final starts from here March 11 : th - When Lepidus was praetor in 49 BC, he got Caesar appointed dictator for 11 days in December 49 to conduct the elections. Caesar became dictator for a 2 time in 48 BC for a year. - The next year, in 46, Caesar was appointed to a dictatorship that was renewable annually for 10 years - People thought Caesar wouldn’t destroy the republican constitution in Rome, but after returning from his African campaign, in the battle of Thapsus, people doubted whether he intended to follow sullas’ examples and advocate his emergency powers th - Feb 14 44 BC- Caesar was made dictator for life (dictator perpetuus) by a decree of the senate- an unpresidented amount of power which alarmed most republicans - Early 44 BC, ther was no further authority short of kingship that could be conferred upon Caesar, he had absolute power - Everything lay in caesars hands- or his magister equitum (master of cavalry)- Lepidus - All appointments to higher magistracies were decided in advance by caesars personal nomination - Caesar showed respect to the senate but conducted deliberations on important matters of state in private, and only consulted the senate as a mere formality - Caesar arrogantly declared in his biography “the republic was nothing- a mere name without form or substance”, and also “Sulla had proved himself a dunce by resigning his dictatorship” - On the same day in February, Caesar also wore the purple robe or rome’s early kings instead of the typical toga won by rome’s magistrates - And replaced the throne of ivory with a golden throne - By 44, portrait of caesars head appeared on coins, something never before done for a living roman - Caesar also accepted an official cult of himself at Rome, and allowed Antony to be appointed as his priest- public worship of a living ruler was a greek practice, but to worship Caesar as a God had no president in Rome and was completely contrary to the concept of a republic - These innovations clarified caesars ambitions, it was clear that Caesar didn’t intend to restore but actually planned to destroy the roman republic, which he openly called a “sham”- but what form of government was Caesar going to substitute in its place? He was planning to establish some form of autocratic government in Rome - King justiried his autocracy through deification- there is no convincing evidence to support this view - His adoption of regal trappings- purple robe and golden chair, minting of coinage depicting his own image, the inclusion of his own statue in the temple of quirinus, and the establishment of his own official cult and priest, indicate caesars yearning for monarchal rule - Rex= king - Roman aristochracy attached a stigmacy to the term rex, that Caesar knew he would offend all those who had any regard for republican tradition by adopting the name. monarchy of whatever form implies succession, but Caesar hadn’t selected a possible successor - He had a child but the child was born out of wedlock with Cleopatra, - Sons name is ciserion, and him and Cleopatra came to rome in 41 BC, so arrangements for his succession were not made cause he was out of wedlock - 45 BC- Caesar accepted Gaius Octavius in his will, his nephew - in January 44 BC, latin festival, when some members of a crowd hailed Caesar as Rex, he reacted by declaring that he was Caesar, not a king - at the lupercalija festival in 44 BC, a day after he had become dictator for life, Antony made several attempts to crown Caesar with a royal diadem, but Caesar refused all the attempts, ordering that the diadem be taken to the temple of Jupiter - they really didn’t want a king, and Caesar knew that - despite Caesar declined the regal title, he couldn’t get rid of how much he aspired to kingship when he overthrew 2 tribunes Marullus and Flavus in 44 BC - Caesar was offended tha the suggestion of kingship had been so unsuccessfully received or that the glory of refusing it had been taken from him - Suatonius wrote biography of Caesar - 44 BC, Caesar was preparing to wage a campaign against the daciams, north of the lower damune, to be followed by a lower war against the Parthians in the east - Caesar aimed to avenge crassus’ defeat at Carrhae by the carthians in 53 BC - Since the Parthians had proven a menace to the province of Syria, - When a syballine oracle was interpreted to say that Parthia could only be concurred by a kind, it was resolved that Caesar shold be called king- he resolved for a formal proposal to be brought forth in the senate, that he should adopt the formal title but only outside of Italy (only rex outside of Italy) - Realization that Caesar wanted to establish an autocracy created a lot of bitterness among the senate, who resented their own loss of power and prestige and the degredation of the senate to a mere advisory council - Caesars abandonment of all republican principle became unbearable - Prospect of his elevation to kingship outside Italy represented the final straw - Roman aristochracy could hardly be expected to submit to being excluded from political life by an autochrat who was only an equal to themselves until recently, Caesar knew he had incurred a lot of hatred - Caesar knew he had enemies, it was a dangerous consequence of caesars own clementia (mercy) that so many of his enemies had survived, Caesar had been merciful and magninmous and hadn’t disgraced his numerous victories by purging the state of his enemies like sulla - After battle of pharcales, Caesar had permitted all the rpublican leaders including cicero to return to Rome, after battle of Thapsus, he had pardoned bitter political foes (ie, marcus Marcellus) - By 44, Caesar had too openly assumed autochratic powers, he had anelianated many who had been ciserian supporters (his own men) - In cicero’s opinion, Caesar was therefore a tyrant - Conspiracy was formed against the dictators life - the originators of this plot were 2 praetors of 44 BC 1. the ex-pompeians: marcus junius brutus 2. gaius cassius - brutus was a member of the clan descended from brutus the liberator who had expelled the tarquin dictator from Rome - a supporter of pompey at pharcales, brutus was held in high esteem by Caesar, but brutus was persuaded that it was his duty to imitate his ancestors feat of killing the tyrant and he bcame the figure head of the conspiracy to rid rome of Caesar and restore the republic like his ancestor when he killed tarquinius superbus - other conspirators included the ciserians, gaius trebonius and decimus junius brutus - about 60 senators were involved in the plot, they needed to act quickly before Caesar left for his esastern campaign on march 14 th - they decided to act in the last meeting of the senate on march the 15 – the ides of march - Plutarch reports that caesars wife, Calpurnia, had experienced nightmares before his murder, and tried unsuccessfully to get him to stay home on the ides of march - Eventually Caesar decided to sent for Antony and dismiss the senate but the decimus brutus intervened (he was also in the conspiracy) - Decimus told Caesar to not be so disrespectful to the senate when they were just about to vote for Caesar to be king, basically decimus convinced caesar that he should go - Calpurnia is extremely worried - Caesar is said to be forewarned on the ides of march by the soothsayer Spurinna to “beware the ides of march” - When encountered spurinna, he said that he was a false prophet - Caesar disregarded all the warnings because of the importance of what was gonna be discussed at the meeting - March 15 44 BC, Caesar entered senate chamber unarmed, and was surrounded by the conspirators who had concealed the daggers. The first blow was struck by Gaius servillius casta (tribune of 44 who wounded Caesar in the neck), Caesar was then stabbed to death – 23 thrusts. He fell, at the foot of pompeys statue. - “Et tu, Brute?” - 3 of caesars household slaves carried him home - the only thrust that really killed him was the second one by Brutus - Caesar was a brilliant military strategist, but because he took up autochratic powers too openly he was assassinated - Roman republic was dead, after Caesar, some form of monorchal government was inevitable - But the successor would need to establish his autochratic rule gradually, he would have to fix the senate by giving them their power back, and proclaiming that the republic was being restored - Octavion is caesars grand-nephew- will go onto become augustus- the first emperor of rome - After assassinating Caesar, the conspirator must have expected that control of political afairs in rome would revert back to the senate and the rpublican system of government would thrive again - When brutus and cassisu went to proclaim what had happened ot the roman people in the forum, they found it deserted, and the few bystanders didn’t greet their act with approval - Fearing for their own safety, the conspiraotrs withdrew to the capitol and Antonius, and Lepidus to assume the reigns of political leadership in the city - Antony and Lepidus assume all leadership - Although Caesar was dead, the cisearian party lived on - Lepidus was commander of troops in Rome, so hes the military leader - At the time of the murder, he had a legion of recruits outside the city greats since he was preparing to set out to the west to become governer of nearer spain - Lepidus contemplated attacking the conspirators but antony wouldn’t let him - antony had already obtained possessions of caesars papers having persuaded Calpurnia to give them to him, now he assumed leadership to the ciserian party - antony had served as a military officer to Caesar in gaul and then promoted to his chief deputy after the civil war - at the time of the murder, antony was caesars colleague in the consulship, antony restreained Lepidus soldiers and commanded a meeting of the senate. At that meeting, the senate were persuaded to reject any extreme measures and resolved to compromise whereby the conspirators would be granted amnesty and no retaliation would be taken against them - all caesars acts and measures would be law, and he would be given a public funeral - antnoys aim to compromise was to heal the riffs, and to diminish the work committed by the assassins th - caesars public funeral was march 20 44 BC - Caesar was voted all divine - Brutus spoke at the funeral - Following this, his will was read. Bequeathed his gardens to the public, In addition to 300 sisterces to each roman citizen, this generosity, made the crowd go into a frenzy, popular sentimate was inflamed to such an extreme that there was an outcry against caesars murder, they mistook the poet for helvius cinna for Cornelius cinna and made him pay the price for killing Caesar – ie. they killed him - The conspirators didn’t remain in rome, but fled the city - Decimus brutus went to his province of cisalpine gaul - Trebnoius went to asia - Brutus went to crete - Antony was master of rome- continued to be the voice of calm, advocating peace in place of violentce, Lepidus and other ciserians - Lepidus became pontifex maximus and departed from rome, to take over nearer spain - The reading of caesars will will also reveal that he had adopted his 18 year old nephew Gaius Octvaious, his principle heir - At the time of caesars murder, octaviuss conection was on his mothers side. - Caesars sister Julia is the grandmother of octvaius, and hiw mother antia, his father named gaius octvaious, - Octavious sailed home from Italy accompanied by marcus vipsanius Agrippa who remained his loyal friend - When octvaious arrived at Bernadia, he contined onto Rome where he finally took the name of Gaius Julius Caesar OCtvaius for greater effect - Modern textbooks rfer to him as octvaions - After 22 BC, he becomes senator augustus - When octavion arrived in rome as caesars adopted son and heir, after his adopshen was formally done - Antony didn’t initially regard octvaion as a threat0 but by may 24 BC, octavious started to become more aggressive - Antony had underestimated the ambition of octavion had been born as the descendant but was now fully adopted as a Caesar. Eg. Caesar and pompey March 13 : th - Lepidus the new pontifex maximus had gone off to govern nearer spain - Octavian, caesars grand nephew and son by adoption and heir, had returned to Italy to claim his inheritance - Public Cornelius dolabella consul in 44 to replace Caesar and he got Syria - Anti caesarian faction- had the conspirators, brutus (crete) and cassius (cyrene), decimus brutus (cisalpine gaul), tribonius (asia), sextus pompey (control of waters in the western mediterranean sea) - Antony had originially been given Macedonia, this included command of all legions that Caesar had mustered for his invasion of Parthia, but when octavion appeared in Rome and emerged as a rival to antony by may of 44 BC, antony had a law passed which altered the assignment of provinces to bolster his possession against octavion, and reserve his stronghold on power - The new law granted antony command of cis and transalpine gaul for a 5 year period, and authorized him to transfer caesars legions from Macedonia to his new provinces - The 2 gauls were strategically important provinces by virtue of their proximity to Italy, and this allowed their governer the possibility to dominate that country (Italy) - Because cisalpine gaul had originally been allotted to the anti-caesarians, decimus was now given Macedonia in exchange - But decimus brutus was already ready in cisalpine gaul as governer and he refused to evacuate, - Antony wanted to drive him out - He called on the 4 legions from Macedonia, and as they were marching to rome, 2 of the 4 legions deserted over to the young octavious, making antonys problems worse - The cisaearian faction was now divided into 2 factions,pitting antony against Octavian - Octavian began to cooperate with the republican senators - The senators were encouraged to oppose antony, so antony becomes the nnumba1 enemy of all of rome - Cisero embraced octavion as the lesser of 2 evils, he didn’t participate in the conspiracy to kill Caesar - Disillusioned with the poltical situation, cisero was often absent from meetings with the senate, antony criticized this in 44 BC - In reply, cisero delivered the first of a set of 14 speeches against antony known as the
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