week 10 and 11.docx

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Classical Studies
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Christina Zaccagnino

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March 18/13  Antony is in control of East, Octavian of the West, in what is becoming a divided empire  Pitting the two as antagonists against each other  Same political strife that had earlier developed between Caesar& Pompey would thus again rear its ugly head and be renewed by Octavian & Antony in the 30s BC culminating in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC  After defeating Sextus in 36, Octavian was granted a tribune sactrosanctity the same year  The careful attention that he paid to building up the backing of a political clientele not only consisting of wealthy equestrians and new men but also of members of the old established republican nobility  Octavian was trying to ingratiate himself among the governing classes and broadening the scope of his support in preparation for the day of possible conflict with Antony  Meanwhile, after the Treaty of Tarentum from 37 BC Antony went to Syria to prepare for his invasion of Parthia which he began in 36 BC contrary to the wise advice of Cleopatra o 37 BC Antony renewed his romantic relationship with Cleopatra  Antony marched East through Armenia, and relied too much upon the Armenian King Artavasdes support  King Artavasdes proved false, withdrew his support at a critical juncture, dooming expedition to failure, enabling Parthians to destroy Roman siege engines and reserve food supplies  Antony was forced to abandon his expedition, save his army by retreating  Losses totalled more than 20 000 men and his reputation was severely damaged  Dignitas was somewhat restored in 34 BC when he occupied and conquered Armenia and carried off King Artavasdes as a prisoner to punish his disloyalty, taking him to Egypt where he celebrated a triumph at Alexandria  Another important consequence of the failure of Anton‘s Parthian invasion was that it also compelled him to increasingly depend on Cleopatra for financial resources  The breach between Antony & Octavian widened with Antony‘s affair with Cleopatra o Went though a ceremony at Antioch in 37 BC to symbolize Antony‘s commitment to Cleopatra o 36 BC Cleopatra bore Antony another son- Ptolemy Philadelphys  After Antony‘s Parthian defeat, he refused Octavia his legal Roman wife, permission to join him in the East bidding her in 35 BC to return to Rome from Athens  Cleopatra could offer Antony a more attractive financial aid package than Octavian could, in return Cleopatra expected the benefits of reviving her empire and extending the Ptolemaic dynasty‘s influence in the east  Antony + Cleopatra = Dionysus + Aphrodite for Greeks, and Osiris + Isis for native Egyptians  In 34 BC in a ceremony known as the donations of Alexandria Antony proclaimed Cleopatra Queen of Kings, and ruler of Egypt, Cyprus, Crete, & part of Syria o As well as supreme overlord of all eastern client kingdoms o Formally recognized her son Ptolemy Caesarion as Caesar‘s true son & heir ―King of Kings‖, provoking Octavian further o The two young sons also received royal titles  Alexander Helios- proclaimed King of Armenia, Media & Parthia  Ptolemy Philadelphus –designated King of Syria, Poenicia & Cilicia  Cleopatra Selene received Cyrene as her territory  Octavian did not fail to use propaganda to the fullest to exploit this territorial reorganization by representing it as an unpatriotic division of Rome‘s eastern provinces made at the order of a foreign queen  Triumvirate legally terminated in 33 BC  Antony had support of both consuls of 32 and half the senate, and was consul elect for 31 o He wrote to the consuls of 32 BC Asking approval for all actions and arrangements that he had made in the east o Consuls feared public opinion in Rome at this request for approval, unwilling to divulge the letters contents  Octavian retaliated after verbal attack by the senate by arriving with a body guard to the senate  Senators fled to Antony  Antony & Cleopatra were in Asia Minor o Had collected a vast army and fleet  In 32 BC, Antony divorced Octavia publicly, only be interpreted as a declaration of war on Octavian  In response, Octavian produced Antony‘s will- published parts that would enflame public opinion against Antony & Cleopatra  Octavian secured a personal oath of allegiance from all Roman citizens in Italy & Western provinces in order to become the leader of all factions, thus equipping himself with a basis of authority  Antony was stripped of imperium and designation of consul in 31 was abandoned  Octavian declared a Just War, Bellum Iustum, against Cleopatra o Declaring war on a foreign queen- rather than civil war against a roman citizen, Antony  Antony & Cleopatra are assembling army & navy in fall of 33 BC in Ephesus for the impending struggle against Octavian for control of the Roman Empire where they then spent the winter to 32  Fall in 32 BC Octavian Declares War upon Cleopatra  Cleopatra‘s money was financing the war so she stayed, though some soldiers resented her being present  Late 32 BC- Antony & Cleopatra mobilize their army & fleet & sail to Greece setting up camp at Actium  In the spring of 31 BC Octavian & Agrippa sailed Eastward from Italy across Adriatic Sea and confronted their enemy outside the Ambracian Gulf  Agrippa & Octavian are going to be in the ocean, the other camp is fighting outwards from the land  Agrippa, Rome‘s greatest Naval tactician, responsible for defeating Sextus Pompey, now in 31 BC successfully blockaded Antony‘s fleet at Actium while Octavian‘s army cut off Antony‘s supplies by occupying strategic points on the mainland  Antony‘s position rapidly worsened, situation became critical when troops suffered severe famine & outbreak of plague in the summer of 31 BC  Cleopatra‘s presence lowered morale among Antony‘s soldiers o Desertions occurred with increasing frequency o Seem Antony decided to fight a decisive battle of Actium or break the blockade and retreat to Asia Minor  Sept. 2nd 31 BC Antony & Cleopatra sailed out of the bay  Antony & Cleopatra sailed out of the bay with a fleet of 200 ships (leaving 300 back in the gulf)  A naval battle followed a minor somewhat anti-climactic engagement, magnified later by Augustan propaganda  Cleopatra‘s squadron of 60 ships broke through Agrippa‘s blockade and she fled the fighting with the treasure war chest aboard her vessel  Antony also managed to escape with 40 ships and followed Cleopatra to Egypt  The rest of the fleet was captured or surrendered, his army quickly capitulated and surrendered  Antony‘s troops suspected he deliberately deserted him- used this as a valid excuse for deserting him and surrendering to Octavian who spared many of their lives  Resistance on land and sea collapsed  Battle of Actium was a decisive victory for Octavian, represented supremacy of West over East  Octavian felt no pressing need to immediately pursue Antony & Cleopatra  Eventually advanced eastward and in summer of 30 BC Octavian invades Egypt, where he occupied Alexandria o Antony‟s troops deserted to Octavian o Hearing a rumour Cleopatra had taken her own life, Antony committed suicide o Cleopatra was taken prisoner, but when she found she would be unable to keep her kingdom, she too committed suicide  Octavian mercifully spared the children of Antony & Cleopatra, but did kill Caesarion as a potential rival  Donations of Alexandria were cancelled by Octavian in 34 BC  Octavian re-established old client kingdoms in the east  Ptolemaic dynasty was abolished, Egypt was annexed as a province of the Roman Empire but with special status- becomes a Roman province in 30 BC o Private possession of the Roman emperor, administered not by a Roman governor but appointed by the emperor himself as his agent- first imperial Prefect of Egypt was Gaius Cornelius Gallus  Octavian obtained all the treasure of the Ptolemy‘s for which he was reimbursed for the cost of battle  On Jan 11 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus were closed – had not happened since the end of the first Punic War- when they‟re closed it symbolizes the restoration of peace to a nation that had been torn by civil strife for a century beginning with the Gracci  Octavian returned to Rome in August of 29 BC and celebrated a 3-day triumph for victories won over the Illyrians who he had subjugated in Dalmatia, also over Antony & Cleopatra and Actium & victories in Egypt  In 30 BC, Octavian emerged as the master of the whole Roman World  Octavian was hailed as savior of the world and a founder of a new golden age, by grateful citizens ready to worship him as a god  Octavian will make much of this bringing Augustan Peace  Peace came at a cost- republic was dead Octavian faced the task of establishing a stable centralized system of government for the vast Roman empire o Deterred by the example of Caesar from establishing an autocratic form of rule o Was to retain the old roman constitution as far as was possible while securing such powers for himself that would enable him to still effectively control the reigns of government so he could uphold the constitution, retain supreme military command over rome‘s legions & thus prevent a renewal of civil warfare  Constitutionally Octavian was in a tricky situation- triumviral powers had lapsed in 33, he managed to secure the consulship for 31 BC to provide a legitimate basis for wielding power, held that office consecutively until 23 BC o With Agrippa as his colleague in the consulship of 28 BC  In 30 BC Octavian‘s power rested also on the personal oath of allegiance sworn to him by the inhabitants of Italy & the western provinces but Octavian had promised to restore the res publica when the war against Antony was concluded- chose to usher in a new form of government known as the Principate- o A system which endured from its establishment by Octavian to 282 AD after which the political system of the roman empire became known as the Dominate- practiced from 282 AD to 476 AD (fall of Roman Empire)  Octavian was a clever propagandist, manipulator, knew how to utilise political catchwords  Surrendered the extraordinary powers he had exercised during the war aginst Antony & Cleopatra, placed the republic at the disposal of the Senate & the Roman people o This didn‘t mean the old mechanisms of government were restored without modifications and restrictions or Octavian ever intended to abdicate his position as ruler of the Roman world since anarchy & civil war would have been the result o Octavian never relinquished firm control of the state but veiled his power under politically correct terms  Claimed he was restoring republic, merely held the post of princeps  “Primus inter pares” = First Man among Equals o In actuality, he was the sole ruler and head of state  This principate (rule by the leading citizen) was a veiled autocracy functioning just like a constitutional monarchy  Quickly accepted that succession would be hereditary so that if an emperor had a son, he would inherit the position despite the occasional disastrous outcome as it entailed – if no male heir, he could by adoption designate one as Caesar had done before him and thus in effect could choose his own successor by marking him out through adoption  Octavian‘s restoration of republic entailed his personal relinquishment of his supreme position, signified the end of a regime of force, and for new authority to be legally conferred upon them  As early as 36 BC Octavian was granted sacrosanctity of a tribute – inviolable  30 BC he was voted the full tribunician power- tribunicia potestas by the senate  Octavian held consulship, often from 31-23  As colleagues, Agrippa and Octavian become censors, revise the role of the Senate – Censoria Potestas  In honour of his reform of the senate, Octavian was placed at the head of the new role designated by the tile princeps Senatus- first man of the senate o Honorary position traditionally held by the most prestigious man of the senate o This meant he would give his opinion first – could direct the thought process of everyone else  „restoring the republic‟ „res publica restituta‟  27 BC Octavian transferred control of the state to the Senate and the Roman people  Problem of the growth of the client army- inability of Senate to control the armies- o Thus imperative for Octavian to have supreme military authority to guard the peace and uphold the constitution o Jan 13 27 BC Octavian transferred the state back took the control of the senate and the roman people, thus restoring the republic  Res Gestae divi Augusti- achievements of the deified Augustus  In gratitude, the senate conferred upon Octavian a grant of proconsular imperium- for 10 years to command and administer the provinces of Spain, Gaul, Syria, and Egypt – chief provinces where peace was not yet firmly established and where most of the Roman armies were consequently stationed; also has auctoritas (great prestige)  Octavian‟s act of restoring the republic and the senate‟s reciprocal bestowal of imperium is known as his first constitutional settlement, Jan 13 27h  Provinces of the roman empire became divided into two categories- senatorial and imperium o Senatorial  Provinces without garrisons of legionary troops  Senate retained responsibility for older and more settled provinces of the empire  Control over: Sicily, Sardinia & Corsica, Illyricum, Macedonia, Greece, Asia, Bithynia, Crete, Cyrene, Africa  Administered these by appointing proconsuls as governors, selected by lot from eligible ex-consuls & praetors who served for 1 year as before during the republic  Asia & Africa were most prestigious senatorial provinces- only ex consuls could govern these provinces o Imperial  Those with garrisons of legionary troops  Any province vulnerable to unrest  Control over: Spain, Gaul, Syria, later Britain  Octavian & successive emperors goverened imperial provinces by legates- deputies of the princeps, known as legati augusti pro- praetore  Directly appointed by the emperor himself, drawn from senators who had held consulship or praetorship, tended to serve for longer terms – 3-5 years  Governor of Egypt was an exception- of equestrian rank, had the title of Equestrian Prefect  Egypt was placed under the emperors special care because of the grain supply  Members of the equestrian class were judged to be more loyal than senatorial nobles  Prefect of Egypt commanded 3 regions and all of Rome‘s grain supply  Senators were not permitted to visit without first obtaining the emperors special approval  Despite the formal distinction between senatorial and imperial provinces, ultimate responsibility for the whole of the Roman empire still rested with the emperor  Although provinces controlled by the senate did not officially fall under the emperor‘s imperium, Octavian could indeed guide their administration by virtue of his auctoritas  By holding proconsular imperium – made him in effect commander in chief of imperial army  This power was viewed as legitimate within republic tradition because it was conferred by the senate  Gave him the necessary legal powers to perform his administrative tasks, allowed him to guide policy within a framework to preserve Republic forms  After first constitutional settlement, he excelled all in influence- but he possessed no more official power than others who were his colleagues in the various smagistracies – Augustus explicitly points this out  Jan 16, 27 BC 3 days after Octavian had restored republic, Senate assigned the title ―Augustus‖ ―the revered one‖ o It was a term that carried no definite powers but being an epithet applied equally to gods or men suitable expressed his exalted position and marked him out from other men o Also bestowed a second title- imperator/commander, given to salute conquering generals o Following republican custom, imperator had been conferred upon him by his army & the Senate after his victory earlier, but now in 27 BC he converted the temporary title into a permanent one  Augustus also informs us that in addition to these honorary titles, the doorposts of his house were publicly wreathed with laurel leaves, civic crown fixed over his door, golden shield set up in the senate house to commemorate him  From 27-23 Augustus‘ power rested upon annual tenure of consulship, consular imperium, and his provincial command proconsular imperium, as well as his great auctoritas  In 23 BC augustus faced crises in his principate- including an attempted conspiracy and almost fatal illness, forced to modify his powers somewhat- th o By 23 BC was holding his 11 consulship but since such an unprecedented monopoly violated republican custom & reduced opportunity for other senators to hold that coveted office he resigned the consulship in 23 BC and instead, the Senate conferred upon him for life full tribunician power- Tribunicia Porestas o Proconsular imperium gave him command over provinces & military authority over the whole Roman army o Tribunician power with rights of veto & summoning assembly- could exercise control over all legislation, and also his auctoritas o To compensate Augustus for resigning the consulship, the scope of his proconsular imperiumw as extended to be valid within the pomerium as well, he could enter Rome without surrendering o Proconsular imperiumw as designated as maius- greater than other proconsuls  They were subject to his orders and he could override them if necessary o Augustus never surrendered this greater proconsular imperium renewing it every 5 or 10 years, thereby preserving his proconsular demand until death o This adjustment of Augustus‟ powers is referred to as his 2 ndConstitutional Settlement o Acquisition of further power & marks of honours continue  12 BC becomes the Pontifex Maximus  2 BC hailed Pater Patriae o Princeps embodied the unity of the empire, as if the patriarch of the family of Roman citizens o Elevated to semi-divine status, after death, senate declared him a god March 20/13  Res Publica Restituta – Augustus‘ Principate 27 BC  2 constitutional settlements ensured that he alone controlled all aspects of the Roman empire politically & militarily  Added to these powers was pontifex Maximus  When famine arose, his temporary pose arose of curator of the grain supply –currae nonae  Received pater patriae  By the gradual acquisition of all these power & marks of honour from 27-2 BC that the system of government which Augustus formed ‗the Principate‘ was finally determined  A magistrate who held ‗a combination‘ of various power bestowed upon him by the senat & the roman people /& who different from the other magistrates in the immensely broader scope of his duties and the longer length of his terms  Each power was separately conferred upon him, and for each power he could deduce constitutional precedence  Combination of these ensured his power be absolute  Augustus‘ dominant position, nominally as first among equals but in reality as foremost above all others  Since Augustus held no definite magistrate after 23, he had no definite official title but in receiving such broad powers he came to surpass all tother Romans in authority, auctoritas, that is in the preeminent influence that he was able to exercise on account of his political position as the foremost of Roman statesmen and the first of all Roman citizens  In the final analysis Augustus‘ genius was to pouch this veiled monarchic autocracy within the framework of the restored republic, avoiding the odious charge of tyranny  Senate retained some semblance of its former prestige but lacked real power  Augustus realized that it was politically correct for him to give the impession that he worked in close cooperation with the senate- he wished to always promote portrayal of the empire as a diarchy – equal rule between the two entities, Princeps & Senate  Augustus stressed his role as the one who brought peace- Pax Augusta o To commemorate this gift of peace, and his victories- Augustus erected his altar of Augustan peace- Ara Pacis Augustae on the Campus Martius in Rome, between 13 and 9 BC  Political reforms o All aimed at streamlining the bureaucracy o 28 BC with Agrippa as colleague in consulship Octavian utilized his censorial power to revise the role of the senate- reducing membership from 1000-8000; further diminishing it later in 13 BC to 600 members o Also cut Quaestors to 20, making age 25 but restricting to men of senatorial order, of personal integrity, who had completed a term of military service, and who possessed a property qualification worth at least 800 sesterces (later raised to 1 million) o Changed ages of (increased to 12) praetors to 32, and the consuls only had to be 35 o Senate given control over public finance & enjoyed the right to mint gold & silver coinage until that became an exclusive prerogative of Augustus himself in 15 BC o After 23 BC the Senate was elevated to the status of a supreme court to judge extortion cases that arose in the Senatorial provinces- in addition, the Senate became employed as a court of justice for the trial of serious, political or criminal charges brought against senators  Its power & prestige were further enhanced when the senate was allowed to pass decrees without the peoples ratification, gradually becoming a legislative body at the expense of the popular assemblies o Augustus formed a centralized system of administration for the empire by creating a civil service- Concilium Principis  Concilium Principis o Council of the princeps, composed of the two consuls- one representative from each of the other magistracies, & 15 senators chosen by lot who served for a period of 6 months to advise him and help prepare the agenda for meetings of the Senate o This advisory committee of the princeps was reorganized in AD 13 to include members of the imperial family o For administering his imperial provinces Augustus appointed as governors- proporaetores --? o To the governors he attached a staff of procurators to serve as financial agents & tax collectors & look after the emperors private financial affairs throughout the vast empire o Procurators managed emperors financial interests even in senatorial provinces o In the city of Rome, a civil service was established run by Curatores/praefecti o All these officials from equestrian & senatorial orders  Equestrian filled civilian functions and received generous salaries for carrying out administrative duties  Senators had higher ranks, like military generals o Augustus‘ civil service, roles for imperial freedmen:  Cura annonae—grain supply  Frumentatio—grain dole  Cura aquae—water supply  Cura riparum et alvei tiberis—flood control  Moneta—mint supervision  Aerarium militare—military treasury  Gradual creation of professional public civil service was one of the greatest enduring constitutional developments made by Augustus  Held by patronage by the emperor- all political, military, & administrative advancement was a function of imperial patronage – need to suck u p to Augustus…  Memvvers of the senatorial order received the governorships of the senatorial provinces  Of these, augustus reserved the proconsulships of the most prestigious senatorial provinces Africa & Asia for Senatorial governors of consular rank  Augustus was absent from Rome from 27 to 24 BC , directing military operations in his provinces of Gaul & Spain- while he was doing this, he revived the old office os praefectus urbi- prefect of the city of Rome o Since the prefect of the city was placed in command of Rome‘s police force, he too, was always chosen from Senators of consular rank  Took measures to ensure law & order- permanent = police force o Core of 4500 men organized in 3 urban cohorts of 1000-1500 men each o Curators of Rome‘s grain supply , curator aquae, curator riparum et alvei tiberis, were all senators of consular rank  Members of equestrian order held important posts as well o Other than focusing as imperium procurators o Equestrians discharged important prefectures o Prefecture of Egypt was most prestigious post to which man of equestrian rank could aspire  In addition to important position of governor of Egypt, equestrians also filled post of 2 praetorian prefects- placed in command of 9 cohorts of the praetorian guard by Augustus in 2 BC o Praetorian guard was the imperial force which attended Augustus in his capacity of commander in chief of the Roman army o Members of the praetorian guard were soldiers who served for a period of 16 years in the city o Were the only troops stationed in Italy o Were often involved in deposing a former emperor o So long as the praetorians remained loyal to the emperor, his position was strong o Praetorians stationed in barracks outside Rome in the praetorian camp- Castra Praetria o 2 praetorian prefects were equestrians in whome the emperor had to have the utmost trust, and who in turn wielded enormous power & influence o Praetorian prefecture increasingly wielded great power  Equestrians also held office of Praefectus annonae- grain supply at Ostia, also commander of Imperial fleet, and prefect of the fire brigade  Augustus gave Rome its first fire department  Rome‘s 1 Police Force: o 3 cohortes urbanae 1000-15000 men each, core of 4500 men under command of the praefectus urbi- a senator of consular rank  When Augustus is away, the praefectus urbi is in control  By 2 BC Praetorian Guard o 9 cohortes praetoriae o 3 stationed in praetorian camp castra praetorian outside Rome; 6 in Italian towns o Functionpesonal imperial bodyguard for emperor commanded by 2 praefecti praetorio (praetorian prefects) men of equestrian rank  Fire Brigade AD6 o Divided city into 14 regions o Vigiles: Night Watchmen to guard against fires, riots, & nocturnal crime  7 cohorts 1000 men in each ; each cohort to watch over 2 regions of Rome o Commanded by praefectus vigilum- prefect of the night watch, a man of equestrian rank  Rome‘s Imperial Navy o Commanded by admiral- praefectus classis (equestrian rank) prefect of the fleet o Stationed at Misenum & Ravenna o War against Sextus Pompey had shown the need for a permanent navy  Rome‘s Grain Supply o Commissionerpraefectus annonae (equestrian rank) o Ensured always enough grain in Rome to supply market at reasonable price o Reduced number eligible for free grain dole to 200 000 citizens  Increased gladiatorial games often at his own expense o Panem et circenses: „bread and circuses‟ to satisfy the people  Augustus upheld restrictions barring freedmen from holding magistracies of cursus honorum of rome, and Italian municipalities  Freedmen start to have a lot of power, but won‘t be able to hold magistracies of cursus honorum  Freedmen- Augustus created positions for freedmen o In Rome Vico Magistri – serve as officials in numerous city districts, like city councillors o In Municipal towns of ItalySeviri Augustales – minor officials who made up local boards in control of supervising the emperors local cult and of putting on public games for their townspeople  Augustus‘ judicial reforms o Added two new standing courts (quaestiones perpetua)- the only ones that could give out capital punishment  De adulteriis - adultery  De annona –hoarding of grain o Supplemented standing courts by Introducing new judicial process:  Cognito extraodrinaria  Special judicial inquiry or investigation  Trials before emperor or Senate  Cases of treason of significant political importance and those involving high ranking officials were now generally tried before one of the two new courts o Either the emperor sitting in his advisory council or the consuls presiding in the Senate o Under such senatorial trials, the emperor or senate decided whether the case could proceed to trial, then judged it in a single process o Emperor & senate thus acquired primary jurisdiction and their verdict precluded any appeal to the people o Appeal to the people (provocation ad populum) that formerly existed under the republic in capital sentences, was now replaced under the principate by appeal to the emperor- Appellatio ad Caesarem  Augustus‘ Fiscal Reforms: o By 23 BC 2 new praetors added to manage the State Treasury (instead of queastors)  Aerarium saturni  Aerarium frequently found itself in financial difficulties  Augustus bailed it out, by subsidizing it with grants of money from his own personal fund- the Patriuomonium Caesaris  This vast private fund included his inheritance from Julius Caesar, fortunes gained through his victory in the civil wars (confiscating Antony‘s property & Cleopatra‘s treasure), revenues generated from imperial estates, & legacies bequeathed to him by wealthy individuals o Established, after 27 BC, a money purse in each of his own imperial provinces- Fiscus  Taxes collected were deposited here, and funds could be withdrawn to pay legions stationed there and for local administrative purposes o 6 AD set up a special fund to provide for retired soldiers- Aerarium Militare  To pay pensions to veterans  Began with initial grant of 170 million sesterces, then instituted two new taxes to help generate funds for it- a 5% inheritance tax levied on legacies, and a 1% sales tax on the selling of slaves  Smart move! Veterans now received their pensions from a military treasury- were no longer dependent upon their general to make provision for their future upon their retirement  Link of dependency was severed at the point of retirement, reducing threat of a general being allowed to use his veteran soldiers as a power boost  Aerarium militare was administered by 3 ex praetors  Augustus‘ Social Reforms o Attempts to introduce social reforms were less successful… o Augustus wished to revive ancient Roman moral virtues, wanted to curb promiscuity, promote family life, discourage childlessness, and increase birth rate o 18 BC 2 Leges Iuliae (Julian Laws)  Adultery was a criminal as well as private offence now – father could kill both the guilty parties  Extolled the virtues of marriage by prohibiting long engagements- by regulating divorce, by compelling bachelors & spinsters to marry and requiring widows & widowers under a certain age to remarry within 3 years  Penalties in the form of disabilities were imposed on those who refused to comply, could take the form of placing complete/partial limitation on one‘s right to inherit legacies  Offenders could also be prevented from ever holding public office, or excluded from public games  Those who married but remained childness were also subject to a range of similar sanctions being imposed  Exemptions to existing rules could be correspondingly gained by marrying & producing children – number of legitimate children entitled him to precedence when he ran for political office; could stand as many years before the legal age of magistracies as he had children  These men with 3 or more children enjoyed the benefit of rapid advancement in public careers- Ius Trium Liberorum ‗right of 3 children‘  These laws ^^^ provoked opposition o 9 AD Lex Papia Poppaea  Modified his earlier Julian legislation- removed the unfair lack of distinction between the childless and unmarried, also by extending grace period before divorced/widowed women were required to remarry o These social reforms were never really successful in legislating marriage & fertility and curbing immorality o Right of 3 children often conferred upon influential men- sometimes these important recipients were not even married…like Vergil & Horus, or the consuls themselves  Augustus‘ legislation may have partially been responsible for growth in population  Augustus set up residence with Livia in a house on the Palatine hill overlooking roman forum o Kept a household of personal servants & close friends to conduct everyday business o Beginnings of imperial bureaucracy o Residents is divided into 2 separate areas o House of livia- family rooms, & house of Augustus containing several state Augustan halls beside portico of nearby temple of Apollo  Carried out an extensive rebuilding program in Rome designed to beautify the city & refurbish ancient temples & shrines, restored 82 temples in 28 BC  Pre-augustan rome was not adorned in accordance with the dignity of the empire, Augustus so embellished it that it could justly boast that he had found the city built of brick, and he left it made of marble (Suetonius‘ account)  Forum Augustum o North of the Roman Forum o Begun in 37 BC and dedicated in 2 BC o Incorporated a temple To Mars Ultor (the Avenger) which he made to commemorate victory of killing tyrannicides of Caesar o Romans considered themselves descendants of Mars  Caesar had earlier built his own forum- Forum Julium, adjacent to the Roman Forum behind the Senate house to relieve overcrowding in the Roman Forum o Caesar had constructed a temple to Venus Genetrix at the north end of his forum to honour his deity, from whom his family claimed descent through her grandson Julus  Between the two forums the two divinities whom the Romans claimed as their ancestors, Venus & Mars, goddess of love & war, were especially honoured with pride of place  Augustus also finished the temple to the divine Juliue Caesar- Divi Iuli o Had displayed rostra, from Antony‘s enemy ships at Actium in front of this temple as a victory trophy  Beside this temple, Augustus built his own triumphal arch – Arch of Augustus  Also completed the new Senate house- Curia Julia, begun by Caesar in the forum, also the Basilica Julium the law courts  On Palatine Hill, Augustus erected the Temple of Apollo 28 BC dedicated by Augustus o Augustus considered Apollo his personal protecting god o Augustus joined colonnades to this temple of Apollo housing latin & Greek libraries  Two new theatres were constructed o Theatre of Marcellus near the Tiber o Theatre of Balbus o Theatre of Pompey in the Campus Martius was refurbished as well  Two new Aqueducts were built o One supplied an immense artificial lake that Augustus has constructed near the Tiber, in order to stage mock naval battles & other aquatic funds  Also adorned city of rome with several colonnades- those named in honour of his wife Livia and sister Octavia  Augustus especially stressed his role as the bringer of peace- Pax Augustae  Ara Pacis (Augustae) 13-9 BC o Altar of augustan peace o Symbol of his regime o Decorated on its sides with sculptured reliefs & a freize depicting the procession of the emperor, other members of imperial family, & senators at the time of its commission or dedication March 25/13  Statue of Augustus imperator  Ara Pacis Augustae o One relief shows fertile mother earth, peace o Pax Augusta depended on the Pax Deorum- peace bestowed from the gods o It was thus essential to propitiate the god
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