CLST 201: Test 1 Review
How did Rome develop?
Historians do not know the exact time Rome was founded so a mythical creation arose. The
foundation legend was associated with the Fall of Troy (1184 BC). In Vergil’s epic Aeneid, the
Trojan prince Aeneas (son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite) sailed from Troy
to Italy. He arrived in Latium with his united Trojan followers and his wife Lavinium and
created Ancient Rome. The purpose of this legend was to connect Rome to the most important
Greek tradition and establish divine ancestry.
The historian, Livy, argued that Rome was formed from two deities: Venus (love) and Mars
(war). Mars and Rhea Silvia had two sons – Romulus and Remus who were abandoned at birth.
After learning their true identity, Romulus chose to rule the new founded city of “Rome” and
Remus was killed.
Rome was created around 1000 BC and consisted of small villages and huts. The city is centrally
located in the middle of Italy and thus in the Mediterranean. Rome was situated far enough
inland to protect from pirates, but close enough to the Tiber River to have access to the ports.
There are Seven Hills of Rome: Capitoline, Palatine, Aventine, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, and
Caelian. The two most important trade routes are Via Salaria known as the “Salt Road” and the
Costal Road, forcing Rome to become the transportation hub.
Foundations of Rome
In order to increase the population, the rape of Sabine women took place. When Romulus died in
a clap of thunder, he become the deity of Quirinus. Rome originally went through a period of
monarchy with the Seven Kings (REX) of Rome:
Romulus (753 -715 BC) Founder of Rome
Numa Pompilius (715 – 673 BC) Began religious practices
Tullus Hostilius (673 – 642 BC) Latium
Ancus Martius (642 – 617 BC) Created 1st bridge across Tiber River called the Pons
Tarquinius Priscus (616 – 579 BC) Etruscan – developed the Roman Forum
Servius Tullius (578 – 535 BC) Second founder; institutions; Wall of City
Tarquinius Superbus (534 – 510 BC) Known as “the proud” Etruscan, created many
buildings (Cloaca Maxima); but he was a tyrant
Tarquinius the Proud had a son called “Sextus Tarquinius” who raped the virtuous Lucretia.
Based on this act, monarchy was abolished with the help of Lucia Junius Brutus. In 509 BC,
Rome officially became a Republic. Roman Political System
Consuls: Minimum age: 42
these people were senior Roman magistrates that had imperium (power)
Fasces: double headed weapon, Toga with purple border
Elected every year – could serve again in 10 years
Praetors: Minimum age: 39
Junior consuls – relieving elders of matters of civil law
Could command roman army
2 Curule, 2 Plebeian
City administration, Organizers of entertainment
Quaestors: Minimum age: 25
Handled financial matters
In charge of public money
Dictator: One person could hold supreme authority for 6 months in major crisis
Pontifex Maximus: Chief priest in charge of religion
Censors: Elected once every 5 years, for duties of 18 months to classify Roman population
Military Tribune: 17-27 years old, people would make up Quaestors later on
Senate: Council of elders made up of aristocracy of about 300 magistrates that held no
legislative power (SPQR The Senate and the People)
Centuriate Assembly: Made up of three tribes (Ramnes, Tities, Luceres) Roman Society
Father was head of the family/ male patriarch
Common ancestry = clans (Gens/Gentes)
Everyone was attached to a Patron (head of property)
A father could be head of family and household
Patrons offered legal benefits to the client