Study Guides (238,399)
Canada (115,129)
CLST 201 (52)

Classics 201 - Test 2

14 Pages
Unlock Document

Queen's University
Classical Studies
CLST 201
Margaret Erskine

Test 2 Review Ander ste Gracchi brothers, the republic essentially ended and two political factions grew from this in the 2 – 1 century BC: 1. Optimates  Called “the best men”  They ruled with few men – Oligarchy  Controlled administration of the state  Followed through noble birth (like Patricians) 2. Populares  The men of the people  Minority faction of the Senate  Demanded change of the status quo  Rome’s Italian allies, Military veterans, and urban poor  Use reform agenda as a means to an end Problem:  Struggle of the orders 2.0  Both part of nobility  Goals were generally the same, just different methods to obtain them Gaius Marius (157-86 BC)  Born into wealthy family in Arpinum  Was a novus homo  “new man”  He was a consul 7x in 107,104 – 100, 86 BC  133 BC – served at Numantia in Spain  119 BC – tribune  115 BC – Praetor  114 BC – Propraetor of further Spain  107 BC – Held first consulship  Married to Julius Caesar’s aunt  Becomes commander in Jugurthine War  His quaestor was named Lucius Cornelius Sulla Jugurthine War  112 – 105 BC  Jugurthine War named after Jugurtha (Roman enemy)  Jugurtha is adopted son of Masinissa  Besieged town of Cirta in 112 BC , killing Italian merchants  King Bocchus of Mauretania betrayed Jugurtha War of 104 – 101 BC  Marius remained consul out of fear of the Germanic tribes  Cimbri and Teutones tribes migrated from Germany to Italy  Destroyed Roman armies in 109, 106, and 105 BC  Battle of Arausio in 105 BC was most disastrous Roman defeat (-)  102 – Battle of Aquae Sextiae Vs Teutones (+)  101 – Battle of Bercellae vs Cimbri (+)  Marius gained incredible popularity from his military advantages Marius’ Military Reforms:  Proletariat army equipped at public expense - Landless volunteers from urban classes  Citizens owed the state; sense of loyalty to their leader  Received land for their participation in war  Troops divided: 6000 soldiers  1 legion = 10 cohorts of 600 men  1 cohort = 6 centuries of 100 men  Muli Mariani = Marius’ Mules Populares: 1. Tribune  L. Appuleius Saturninus (stoned to death by Optimates)  Majestas  Treason charge  Social reform: grain law @ fixed selling price, agrarian law for vets in Gaul, Vet lands in Sicily and others  Military law: supporting roman troops against Cilician pirates and King Mithrodates VI of Pontus 2. Praetor  C. Servilius Glaucia Mithrodatic War  89 – 85 BC  Sulla became the commander of war  Mithrodates was looking to invade Macedonia and northern Greece  Marius wanted to command army, so tribune P. Sulpicius made law that consul didn’t have to, held consulship in 86 and died few days later  Two major battles in Greece: o Battle of Chaeronea (+) o Battle at Orchomenus (+)  86 BC Consul Lucius Valerius Flaccus tried to command army, and Sulla refused  Flaccus recovers Macedonia  Fimbria, legate to Flaccus, recovers Pergamum then kills Flaccus  Lucius Lucullus is famous for naval victory  Sulla could pass safely to Asia and Mithrodates was ready to end war  85 BC – Peace of Dardanus brings end to war and Mithrodates has to give up all he’s gained and pay money to Rome Lex Calpurnia  Extortion court created in 149 BC  Fight over who can be jurors: Senators (originally) or Equites  123/122 BC – Lex Acilia: Jurors were Equites  106 BC – Lex Servilia: Jurors were Senators  101 BC – Jurors were Equites  Marcus Livius Drusus (the younger) tried to solve problem with three legislative reforms: 1. Increase members of Senate from 300 – 600 and split jurors 2. Subsidized grain and land allotments for poor 3. Grant Roman citizenship to Italian allies  Drusus was assassinated for this Italian Social War  90 – 88 BC  Italians demanded they received Roman citizenship for backing them up after wars  After Drusus’ assassination, the Italian allies revolted  Praetor spoke against them, so they murdered him and massacred all Romans in Ascalum  Rebels included those who fought in Roman army  Divided Rome into two groups: o Romans, Latin colonies, and Greek coastal cities o Italian allies, Samnites, Marsi, etc.  War on two fronts in 90 BC: Etruria in North and Campania in South  Etruria: o Struggle was equally balanced  Campania o Rebels enjoyed success  Consul L. Julius Caesar granted Roman citizenship for all allies loyal to Rome in 90 BC  Two tribunes carried out a law called Lex Plautia=Papiria for Roman citizenship be given to those who surrendered in 89 BC  Third law, Lex Pompeia, by Pompeius the Great, granted citizenship to all those in Cisalpine Gaul  In 88 BC, Sulla controlled rebellion  Positive Results o 500, 000 new citizens (almost all of Italy) were Roman o Still focused on self-governing o Uniformed culture, national unification  Negative Results o Only registered 8-10/35 tribes, thus had less authority o Taste of civil war  leading to downfall of Republic Lucius Cornelius Sulla  Born into Patrician family, thus an Optimate  Believed he was the reason the Jugurthine war ended  Became consul in 88 BC, having to deal with Social war and in charge of Mithrodatic War  Married into Metelli family  Sulla’s Reforms: o Senatorial approval required for all legislation o Comitia Centuriata became main legislative body Civil War  Sulla m  By the time he came back from Mithrodatic War, Populares were back in power  Sulla made his second march on Rome  Marius opposes with his own March on Rome in 87 BC  Sulla’s side: Veterans, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius  Marius’ side: Two armies lead by consuls Carbo and younger Marius  Battle of Sacriportus: Sulla defeated younger Marius  Battle of Colline Gate: o 82 BC o Sulla defeated Marian forces and Samnites o Younger Marius committed suicide  Fighting in the West in Spain o Annius defeated Q. Sertorius o Pompey defeated Carbo in Sicily and Cn. Domitius Aheno Barbus in Africa  Sulla becomes absolute master of Roman world Lucius Cornelius Cinna  Consul in 87-84 BC  Sole consul after Marius’ death  He appointed Flaccus as new consul  Cinna was murdered upon Sulla’s return Sulla’s Reign of Terror  In 82 BC, Sulla began to exact revenge on anyone who fought against him in the civil war  Method of proscription  No need for trial, they were just condemned to death  6,000 enemies were murdered  2,600 Equites  90 Senators  Children of proscribes were banned from holding office Lex Valeria  Sulla became dictator from 82-79 BC  He validated all his actions and gave himself unprecedented authority  82 BC  L. Cornelius Sulla “Felix” Sulla’s Legislative Reforms 1. Political:  Restrictions of tribunal power of veto  No higher office permitted 2. Judicial :  Senatorial juries only (Equestrians were disqualified)  7 Jury Courts: i. Extortion ii. Treason iii. Electoral bribery iv. Fraud v. Embezzlement vi. Murder vii. Violent Assault  Sulla increased number of the senate from 300 to 600 (300 Equestrians enrolled)  Increased power of the Senate  Quaestors rose to 20, while Praetors rose to 8 3. Magisterial:  Curus Honorum regulated  re-enacted the Lex Villia Annalis of 180 BC (age of those in power)  10 year interval between repetition of same position of magistracy Other Reforms:  Provincial Legislation: o Created the new province of Cisalpine Gaul (10 ) (9 was Cilicia in 102 BC)  7 provinces in west: Sicily, Sardinia/Corsica, Near & Further Spain, Africa, Transalpine Gaul, Cisalpine Gaul  3 Provinces in the East: Macedonia, Asia, Cilicia o Sulla imposed restrictions of Roman governors  Couldn’t leave province without Senate’s approval  Couldn’t start a war without Senate’s approval  Had one month after consulship ended to GTFO o Sulla resigned dictatorship in 79 BC, and died in 78 BC Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus:  Known as Pompey the Great, lived from 106 – 48 BC  Lived in reflection of Marius and Sulla  Political success was related to military victories Marcus Aemilius Lepidus:  Advocate for speaking against Sulla’s reforms  Became consul in 78 BC  Recalled Marian exiles & renewed distribution of cheap grain to poor masses of Rome  success  Reinstated the dispossessed and restore tribunician’s powers  failed  Marched on Rome to become consul in 77 BC  Catullus (other consul) and Pompey defeated Lepidus who died in Sardinia Quintus Sertorius (122 – 73 BC)  Governor of Nearer Spain in 83 BC  One of the most capable generals in Rome  Claimed he was loyal to Rome, just against Sulla’s regime  Revolt  Spanish wars from 80 – 71 BC Spanish Wars  Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius consul of 80 BC was sent to govern Further Spain in 79 BC  Pompey was sent out in 77 BC with extraordinary command & sought command against Sertorius  Even at age 29, Pompey was given “Consul Imperium” to conduct war against Sertorius  Thanks to Perperna (a traitor) Sertorius was killed  Pompey then executed Perperna  Trouble brewing in east Second Mithridatic War  83 – 82 BC  L. Licinius Murena governor of Asia attacked Mithridates  Sulla recalled Murena back to Rome, ending the war  Bithynia’s leader did not have a song, and was bequeathed to Rome in 74 BC becoming a Roman province  Mithridates wants Bithynia, thus allies with the pirates in Cilicia Third Mithridatic War  74 – 73 BC  Lucullus (consul of 74 BC) received naval victories and recovered Lithinia  Tigranes II – the King of Armenia and Mithridates’ son in law L. Lucullus (116 – 57 BC)  Consul of 74 BC  Reorganization of financial situation in Asia  Demanded that Mithridates surrender to Tigranes  Marched on Armenia without authorization of Rome  He is back at square one, and must rely on Pompey to rescue him  Battle of Zela (-) in 67 BC Italian Slave Revolt  Broke out in 73 BC and lasted until 71 BC  Lead by Spartacus  Thousands of armed gladiators and defeated 4 armies by 72 BC  Marcus Licinius Crassus was put in charge of army  Pompey comes in and takes victory  Crassus made a display of 6,000 captured slaves on put them on crosses  Both men yearned to secure the “Princeps (leading man)” declaration Pompey the Great & Crassus  Became the consuls in 70 BC  He was not qualified, and therefore the first breach of Sullan constitution  *In 75 BC  Consul C. Cotta permitted tribunes the power to hold higher magistrates  In 70 BC  all powers of tribunes were restored and brought Rome back to pre-Sullan state  Pompey got the authority he wanted  Tribune L. Cotta  Aurelian Law o Jury Courts consisted of 1/3 senators, 1/3 equestrians, and 1/3 tribunes of treasury (2/3 were non-senatorial) o Tribunes Aerarii (300,000 – 600,000 sesterces)  Trial of Gaius Verres o Took place in 70 BC o He was a bad governor of Sicily (73 – 71 BC) o Charged with extortion o He was defended by Quintus Hortensius Hortalus but lost o The prosecutor was Marcus Tullius Cicero  Lex Gabinia: 67 BC o Tribune Aulus Gabinius introduced law for someone to be in charge of Mediterranean for 3 years to eliminate pirates o Senate appointed Pompey who eliminated them quickly in only 3 months o Captured pirates were dealt with very humanly  Lex Manilius: 66 BC o Tribune Gaius Manilius o Senate opposed Pompey’s extended command in the east o 66 – 62 BC conquest of the east:  Invade Armenia then pursue Mithridates  Mithridates’ subjects revolt against him  Pharnaces (M’s son) lead revolt and M committed suicide  End of war Gaius Julius Caesar  100 BC – 44 BC  His aunt married Marius  Devoted abilities to Marian party even though he was patrician  Quaestor in Further Spain in 69/68 BC  Aedile in 65 BC  won popularity by gladiator shows  Pontifex Maximus in 63 BC  Praetor in 62 BC  Governor of Further Spain in 61 BC  Consul in 59 BC Gaius Pompeius Magnus (106 – 48 BC) & Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 – 43 BC)  Represent the senate  Cicero won the trial against Verres, and he is used as watch dog for Pompey  P. Servillius Rullus  Tribune 63 BC  Land bill withdrawn  Cicero delivered speech talking about hidden ideas of Crassus and Caesar Elections of 64 BC for Consu
More Less

Related notes for CLST 201

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.