Study Guides (238,408)
Canada (115,131)
Commerce (450)
COMM 151 (40)

Organizational Behaviour Midterm Exam Review (MINERS)

25 Pages
Unlock Document

Queen's University
COMM 151
Christopher Miners

Organizational Behaviour Midterm Exam Review Shannon Bailey Chapter 1 / Lecture 1 & 2 Organizations – social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort Organizational behaviour – the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations. The field of OB is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively, is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change, and with how to get people to practice effective teamwork Management – the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others History of Organizational Behaviour  In early 1900s, rapid industrialization and factory work, movement toward efficiency Scientific Management – Taylor’s system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks Bureaucracy – Max Weber’s ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence Classical Viewpoint/Scientific management/Taylorism: 1. high degree of specialization in jobs 2. routinized procedures 3. decision making power concentrated in upper management 4. promotion for conformity problems: boring, easy to lose sight of significance of work, can lead people to do the bare minimum, entry level employees have no means to influence upper management  In 1920s and 1930s, human relations were analyzed, they found that psychological and social factors influence the behaviour of workers Hawthorne studies – research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric near Chicago in the 20s and 30s that illustrated how social and psychological processes affect productivity and work adjustment Human relations movement – a critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs  Today, Contingency approach, there is no one best way to manage – an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation Formal Managerial Roles: Authority and Status Informational Interpersonal Decisional Roles Roles Roles Monitor Figurehead Entrepreneur Disturbance Disseminator Leader Handler Resource Spokesperson Liaison allocator Negotiator Managerial Activities:  Routine communication – handling of paperwork, meetings  Traditional management – planning, decision making & controlling  Networking – interacting with people outside organization  Human Resource Management – employee management Managerial Agendas:  Agenda setting – goals, plans  Networking  Agenda Implementation – using network to implement agendas Talent Management – an organization’s processes for attracting, developing, retaining and utilizing people with the required skills to meet current and future business needs Corporate social responsibility (CSR) – an organization taking responsibility for the impact of its decisions and actions on its stakeholders Chapter 5 / Lecture 3 Motivation – the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Intrinsic motivation – motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self applied Extrinsic motivation – motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task, it is usually applied by others -even if upper management thinks a motivation technique is working well in the short run, it may not be helpful (or may even be harmful) in the long run (linebacker terry tate commercial example) -money is a motivator but if you’re only 5 or 10 percent underpaid, the other perks are probably stronger motivators Motivation techniques:  Perks i.e. day care, gym facilities, monetary bonus  Flexibility i.e. telecommuting, casual dress, flex hours  Growth i.e. offer career management, invest in training Self Determination theory – a theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled Autonomous motivation – when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors Controlled motivation – when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic award Performance – the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization Factors Contributing to Job Performance Amount, Persistence, General Task Emotional and Motivation Personality Cognitive Understandi Intelligence Chance Performance Directionof ability ng Effort General cognitive ability – a person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources Emotional intelligence – the ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions 1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others 2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking 3. Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions 4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals Need theories – motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance Maslow’s hierarchy of needs – a five level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential 1. Physiological needs – needs that must be satisfied for the person to survive I.e food, water, shelter 2. Safety needs – needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety, and a structured and order environment. May include safe working conditions, fair rules and regulations, job security, pension plans, etc 3. Belongingness needs – needs for social interaction, affection, love, friendship i.e. opportunity to interact with others on the job, friendly and supportive supervision 4. Esteem needs – needs for feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strength, and confidence, and the appreciation and recognition of these characteristics by others i.e. the opportunity to master tasks leading to feelings of achievement and responsibility, awards, promotions, professional recognition 5. Self-actualization needs – involve the desire to develop one’s true potential as an individual to the fullest extent and to express one’s skills, talent, and emotions in a manner that is most personally fulfilling i.e. absorbing jobs with the potential for creativity and growth as well as a relaxation of structure to permit self development and personal progression Alderfer’s ERG theory – a three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy (a lower-level need mustn’t be satisfied to fulfill a higher level need). ERG theory assumes that if the higher level needs are unsatisfied, individuals will increase their desire for the gratification of lower level needs. 1. Existence needs – needs that are satisfied by some material substance or condition. Correspond to Maslow’s physiological needs and to those safety needs that are satisfied by material conditions rather than interpersonal relations. i.e. shelter, food, pay, safe working conditions 2. Relatedness needs – needs that are satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thoughts and feelings with other organizational members. They correspond to Maslow’s belongingness needs and to those esteem needs that involve feedback from others. However, Alderfer stresses that relatedness needs are satisfied by open, accurate, honest interaction rather than by uncritical pleasantness 3. Growth needs – the needs satisfied by strong personal involvement in the work setting, full utilization of one’s skills and abilities and the development of new skills and abilities. This corresponds to Maslow’s self actualization needs and the aspects of esteem needs that concern achievement and responsibility McClelland’s Theory of Needs – a non hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation Need for achievement – a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well. Individuals who are high in need for achievement will have a preference in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes, a tendency to set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risks, and a desire for performance feedback Need for affiliation – a strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships Need for power – a strong desire to influence others, making a significant impact or impression Process theories – motivation theories that specify the details of how motivation occurs Expectancy Theory – a process theory that states that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job Instrumentality – the probability that a particular first level outcome will be followed by a particular second level outcome Valence – the expected value of work outcomes; the extent to which they are attractive or unattractive -the valence of a first level outcome depends on the extent to which it leads to favourable second level outcomes Expectancy – the probability that a particular first level outcome can be achieved Force – the effort directed toward first level outcome Force = first level valence x expectancy E = expectancy, V = Valence, I = instrumentality I I I E I I E I I I Expectancy theory says:  People will be motivated to perform in those work activities that they find attractive and that they feel they can accomplish  The attractiveness of various work activities depends on the extent to which they lead to favourable personal consequences Equity Theory - a process theory that states that motivation stems from a comparison of the inputs one invests in a job an the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group. Fairness matters to us: individuals are motivated to maintain an equitable exchange relationship When inequity is present, people will devote considerable energy to reducing inequity by:  Perceptually distorting one’s own inputs or outcomes  Perceptually distorting the inputs/outcomes of the comparison person or group  Choose another comparison person or group  Alter one’s inputs or outcomes  Leave the exchange relationship For example, if your performance is very high with an $85000 salary, and your coworker’s performance is high with a $95000 salary: You will feel cheated – you may ask for a raise, wait & hope mgmt. notices, or resign, but most likely you will just decrease your performance Your coworker might feel guilty, lucky, or happy – he/she may increase performance, but most likely he/she will come up with reasons why they are paid more – self serving bias Goal – the object or aim of an action Goal setting theory – a process theory that states that goals are motivational when they are specific, challenging, and when organizational members are committed to them and feedback about progress toward goal attainment is provided -goals are most effective when workers are actively involved in setting them – the worker has a sense of ownership and ensures the goal is realistic -if you make a goal public, you become publicly accountable – good motivator Goal orientation – an individual’s goal preferences in achievement situations Learning goal orientation – a preference to learn new things and develop competence in an activity by acquiring new skills and mastering new situations Performance goal orientation – a preference to obtain favourable judgments about the outcome of one’s performance Performance-avoid goal orientation – a preference to avoid negative judgments about the outcome of one’s performance -a performance prove orientation is not related to learning or performance outcomes -a learning goal orientation is most effective for learning and performance outcomes, while a performance avoid goal orientation is detrimental for learning and performance Distal goal – long term or end goals Proximal goal – short term or sub-goals. Proximal goals involve breaking down a distal goal into smaller, more attainable sub goals. They provide clear markers of progress toward a distal goal. Chapter 6 / Lecture 4 Piece-rate – a pay system in which individual workers are paid a certain sum of money for each unit of production completed Benefits – increased productivity and decreased turnover Potential Problems – lowered quality, differential opportunity (might be less opportunity to produce a lot for fault of equipment or resources at different factories), reduced cooperation, incompatible job design, restriction of productivity) Wage incentive plans – various systems that link pay to performance on production jobs -wage incentives will increase productivity, but can cause lowered quality and reduced cooperation -also, a threat to the establishment of wage incentives exists when workers have different opportunities to produce at a high level, or the way the job is designed is incompatible with wage incentives (i.e on an assembly line, difficult to identify and reward individual contributions to productivity) Restriction of productivity – the artificial limitation of work output that can occur under wage incentive plans. This happens if workers come to an informal agreement about what constitutes a fair day’s work. This happens because employees may fear that increased productivity may result in reductions in the workforce or that if employees produce at an exceptionally high level, employer may reduce the rate of payment Merit pay plans – systems that attempt to link pay to performance on white-collar jobs The problems with merit pay plans are: Low discrimination – managers might be unwilling or unable to discriminate between good and bad performers Small increases - merit increases may be simply too small to be good motivators Pay secrecy – even if merit pay is administered fairly, is contingent on performance, and is generous, employees may remain ignorant of these facts as they have no way of comparing their own merit treatment with that of others. Employees are inclined to ‘invent’ salaries of other members: they underestimate their bosses pay, overestimate their peers’ pay, and overestimate their subordinates pay. These tendencies reduce satisfaction with pay, damage perceptions of the linkage between performance and rewards, and reduce the valence of promotion to a higher level of management. Lump sum bonus – merit pay that is awarded in a single payment and not built into base pay Profit sharing – the return of some company profit to employees in the form of a cash bonus or a retirement supplement. However, difficult to see one employee’s impact on a company’s profit, so likely not too motivational. Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) – incentive plans that allow employees to own a set amount of a company’s shares and provide employees with a stake in the company’s future earnings and success Gain sharing – a group pay incentive plan based on productivity or performance improvements over which the workforce has some control Skill based pay – a system in which people are paid according to the number of job skills they have acquired Pay Plan Description Advantages Disadvantages Profit Employees -employees have a sense of -many factors beyond the control Sharing receive a cash ownership of employees can affect profits bonus based on -aligns employee goals with -it is difficult for employees to see organization organization goals the impact of their actions on profits -only pays when the profits organization makes a profit Employee Employees can -creates a sense of legal and -many factors influence the value Stock own a set psychological ownership for of a company’s shares, regardless Ownership amount of the employees of employees’ effort and Plans organization’s -aligns employee goals and performance (ESOPs) shares interests with those of the -difficult for employees to see organization connection between stock price and their effort -motivational potential lost in a weak economy (value of stocks down) Gainsharing When measured -aligns organization and -bonuses might be paid even costs decrease, employee goals when the organization does not employees -encourages teamwork and make a profit receive a bonus cooperative behaviour -employees might neglect based on a objectives that are not included predetermined in the formula formula Skill-based Employees are -encourages employees to -increases cost of training and pay paid according learn new skills labour costs (if employees have to the number -greater flexibility in task more skills, will demand more of job skills they assgnments money) acquire -provides employees with a broader picture of the work process Job scope – the breadth and depth of a job Breadth – the number of different activities performed in a job Depth – the degree of discretion or control a worker has over how tasks are performed High Depth, Low Breadth High Scope Quality Control Manager Equipment Professor Monitoring Low Scope High Breadth, Traditional low depth assembly line Assembly line job utility worker -high scope jobs should provide more intrinsic motivation than low scope jobs. People can fulfill higher order needs by the opportunity to perform high scope jobs. -you can increase the scope of a job by offering stretch assignments (challenging ones) or job rotation Job rotation – rotating employees to different tasks and jobs in an organization Core job characteristics: STAFT  Skill variety – the opportunity to do a variety of job activities using various skills and talents o High variety – owner/operator of a garage does electrical repair, rebuilds engines, body work, and customer interaction o Low variety – a body shop worker spray paints 8 hours a day  Autonomy – the freedom to schedule one’s own work activities and decide work procedures o High autonomy – a telephone installer who schedules his own work for the day, makes unsupervised visits, and decides on the most effective techniques to use o Low autonomy – a telephone operator who must handle calls according to a routine, highly specified procedure  Task significance – the impact that a job has on other people o High significance – nursing the sick in a hospital intensive care unit o Low significance – sweeping hospital floors  Task identity – The extent to which a job involves doing a complete piece of work, from beginning to end o High identity – a cabinet maker who designs a piece of furniture, selects the wood, builds the object, and finishes it to perfection o Low identity – a worker in a furniture factory who operates a lathe solely to make table legs  Feedback – Information about the effectiveness of one’s work performance o High feedback – an electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then tests it to determine if it operates properly o Low feedback – an electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then routes it to a quality control inspector Motivating potential score = S + T + T x A x F 3 Growth need strength – the extent to which people desire to achieve higher order need satisfaction by performing their jobs. This may be why jobs high in motivating potential do not always lead to favourable outcomes for every individual Job enrichment – the design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, quality of working life, and job involvement. Typically involves increasing the motivation potential of jobs via the arrangement of their core characteristics. Job enrichment schemes:  Combining tasks – increases variety and may contribute to task identity  Establishing external client relationships – increase identity and significance of the job, as well as feedback  Establishing internal client relationships – see above  Reducing supervision or reliance on others – increases autonomy  Forming work teams – increases variety and identity  Making feedback more direct – increases feedback -job enrichment can create problems if there is a poor diagnosis, a lack of workers’ desire/skill, a demand for rewards, and union or supervisory resistance Job involvement – a cognitive state of psychological identification with one’s job and the importance of work to one’s total self image Job enlargement – increasing job breadth by giving employees more tasks at the same level to perform but leaving other core characteristics unchanged (workers given more boring, fragmented, routine tasks – not motivating) Work design characteristics – attributes of the task, job, and social and organizational environment  Task characteristics – how the work itself is accomplished and the range and nature of tasks associated with a particular job (involves autonomy, task variety, significance, identity, and feedback)  Knowledge characteristics – the kinds of knowledge, skill, and ability demands that are placed on an individual as a function of what is done on the job (includes job complexity, as well as the information processing, problem solving, skill variety, and specialization required by the job)  Social characteristics – the interpersonal and social aspects of work (social support, interdependence, interaction outside organization required by job, and feedback from others)  Contextual characteristics – the context within which work is performed including the physical and environmental contexts (ergonomics, physical demands, work conditions, equipment use) Management by Objectives (MBO) – an elaborate, systematic, ongoing program designed to facilitate goal establishment, goal accomplishment, and employee development. Manager will meet with workers to agree on objectives, there are periodic meetings, and an appraisal meeting is held to evaluate the success/failure with regards to meeting the objectives -alternative working schedules are also a motivator: Flex time – an alternative work schedule in which arrival and departure times are flexible Compressed workweek – employees work fewer than the normal 5 days a week but still put in a normal number of hours per week Job sharing – two part time employees divide the work of a full time job Work sharing – reducing the number of hours employees work to avoid layoffs when there is a reduction in normal business activity Telecommuting – a system by which employees are able to work at home but stay in touch with their offices through the use of communications technology Task performance – how well you do on the activities that are assigned to you Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) – activities that are not a part of your formal job description but nonetheless help the organization to succeed Counterproductive work behaviour – opposite of OCB, activities that harm the organization and are willful. For example, showing up late, spreading rumors about coworkers -when judging job performance, there are three types of managers: those for whom task performance dominates, those for whom counterproductive performance dominates, and those for whom task and counterproductive performance are weighed equally -notice that OCB does not influence the way a manager rates an employee’s level of job performance -the strongest job performers are individuals who score high on IQ and EI (emotional intelligence) tests, and conscientious individuals -people who score high on EI tests are strong performers because they are aware of their strengths and weaknesses, they deal with stress better, they’re good and managing your and other’s emotions (and it helps to be well-liked) -extraversion and agreeableness are also related to job performance, but less so than conscientiousness Personality Amount/Persistence/Direction General CognitiveAbility of Effort Motivation EmotionalIntelligence Performance Chance Chapter 4 / Lecture 5 Values – a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others i.e. different generations (X vs Y value different things, different cultures value different things) Hofstede’s Study – Four basic dimensions along which work related values differ across cultures:  Power Distance – the extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members. In small power distance countries, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible and power differences are downplayed; they include Austria, Denmark, and New Zealand  Uncertainty Avoidance – the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations. Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules and regulations, hard work, conformity and security, and include Japan, Greece and Portugal. Weak uncertainty avoidance cultures are less concerned with rules and risk taking is valued, including Singapore, Sweden.  Masculinity/Femininity – more masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender roles, support the dominance of men, and stress economic performance. Feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality and quality of life. Japan is the most masculine, and Scandinavian countries are the most feminine  Individualism vs. Collectivism – individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy. Collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family or clan. USA and Australia are individualistic, where Columbia and Pakistan are collective  Long term vs. Short term orientation – culture with a long term orientation stress persistence, perseverence, thrift, and close attention to status differences while cultures with a short term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face saving, and social niceties. China and Japan are more long term while US and Nigeria are more short term. -an appreciation of cross cultural differences in values is essential to understanding the needs and tastes of customers or clients around the world, as well as to translate management practices to other cultures Attitude – a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people. Attitudes influence behaviour. Belief + Value  Attitude  Behaviour Job satisfaction – a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs What determines job satisfaction?  Discrepancy  Fairness  Disposition (born with it)  Mood and Emotion  Career Opportunities The key contributors, however, are:  Mentally challenging work  Adequate Compensation  Job Performance (especially when pay is tied to performance)  Satisfying Social Relationships  Personality Traits -when measuring job satisfaction, you must take into account multiple items because there are multiple facets to satisfaction. When measuring, dilute carelessness by including many questions on a survey What does job satisfaction predict? 1. Weak relation with task performance – so many things contribute to task performance (i.e. EI, IQ etc) so just not enough to make a strong correlation 2. Moderate relation with customer satisfaction and turnover intentions 3. Strong relation with organizational citizenship behaviour Discrepancy theory – a theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the job outcomes that are perceived to be obtain Job outcome perceived to be obtained > job outcome desired = high satisfaction Distributive fairness – fairness that occurs when people receive the outcomes they think that they deserve from their jobs Equity theory – a theory that job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the inputs ones invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group My outcomes = Other’s outcomes My inputs Other’s inputs Procedural fairness – fairness that occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable. Rather than the actual distribution of resources or rewards, it is concerned with how these outcomes are allocated and decided. The following factors contribute to perceptions of procedural fairness: (the allocator)  Follows consistent procedures over time and across people  Uses accurate information and appears unbiased  Allows two way communication during the allocation process  Welcomes appeals of the procedure or allocation Interactional fairness – fairness that occurs when people feel they have received respectful and informative communication about an outcome Emotions – intense, often short lived feelings caused by a particular event Mood – less intense, longer lived and more diffuse feelings Emotional contagion – tendency for moods and emotions to spread between people or throughout a group Emotional regulation (emotional labour) – requirement for people to conform to certain display rules in their job behaviour in spite of their true mood or emotions. The frequent need to suppress negative emotions takes a toll on job satisfaction and increases stress. -stress negatively impacts your health: recall example from class with nuns who wrote autobiographies; those who used positive emotions lived on average 10 years longer than those with the least positive emotion words Consequences of High Job Satisfaction:  Low absence from work  Low turnover rates  High performance  High organizational citizenship behaviour  High customer satisfaction and profit (employee job satisfaction translates into customer satisfaction due to moods, less turnover, etc) Organizational commitment – an attitude that reflects the strength of the linkage between an employee and an organization Affective commitment – commitment based on identification and involvement with an organization. People with high affective commitment stay with an organization becau
More Less

Related notes for COMM 151

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.