Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
Queen's (5,000)
COMM (500)
Midterm

COMM 151 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Conscientiousness, Hawthorne Effect, Satisficing


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 151
Professor
Christopher Miners
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
COMM$151$MIDTERM$NOTES$
W1$CHAPTER$1:$ORGANIZATIONAL$BEHAVIOUR$AND$MANAGEMENT!
Organizations$
Social!inventions!for!accomplishing!common!goals!through!group!effort!
Organizational$Behaviour$
Attitudes!and!behaviours!of!individuals!and!groups!in!organizations!
Human$Resources$Management$
Programs,!practices,!and!systems!to!acquire,!develop,!motivate,!and!retain!employees!in!
organizations!
Why!Study!OB?!
1. Interesting!
2. Important!
3. Makes!a!difference!
Goals!of!OB!
1. Predicting!
2. Explaining!
3. Managing!
Management$
Art!of!getting!things!accomplished!in!organizations!through!others!
Evidence-based$Management$
Translating!principles!based!on!the!best!scientific!evidence!into!organizational!practices!
Classical$Viewpoint$
Early!prescription!on!management!that!advocated:!
- High$specialization$of$labour$
- Routinized$procedures$(intense$coordination)$
- Centralized$decision-making$(upper-management)!
Scientific$Management$
Using!research!to!determine!the!optimum!degree!of!specialization!and!standardization!of!
work!tasks!
- Frederick!Taylor!(1856-1915)!à!Taylorism$
- Functional$foremanship!=!supervisors!specialize!in!different!functions$
Bureaucracy$
Coined!by!Max!Weber!(1864-1920)!
Ideal!type!of!organization!that!included:!
- Strict!chain!of!command!
- Detailed!rules!
- High!specialization!
- Centralized!power!
- Selection!and!promotion!based!on!technical!competence!
Hawthorne$Studies$
Research!conducted!in!the!1920s/1930s!at!the!Hawthorne!plant!of!Western!Electric!near!
Chicago!that!illustrated!how!psychological!and!social!processes!affect!productivity!and!work!
adjustment!
Human$Relations$Movement$
Critique!of!classical!management!and!bureaucracy!that!advocated!management!styles!that!
were!more!participative!and!oriented!toward!employee!needs!
Contingency$Approach$
Approach!to!management!that!recognizes!that!there!is!no!one!best!way!to!manage,!and!that!
an!appropriate!management!style!depends!on!demands!of!the!situation!
Managerial$Roles$
1. Informational!=!various!ways!managers!receive!and!transmit!information$
2. Interpersonal!=!establishing!&!maintaining!interpersonal!relations$
3. Decisional!=!decision-making!
Managerial$Activities$
1. Routine$Communication$
2. Traditional$Management$
3. Networking$
4. Human$Resource$Management$
Workplace!Spirituality!
Workplace!that!provides!employees!with!meaning,!purpose,!a!sense!of!community,!and!a!
connection!to!others!

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Positive!Organizational!Behaviour!
(POB)!
Study!and!application!of!positively-oriented!human!resource!strengths!and!psychological!
capacities!that!can!be!measured,!developed,!and!effectively!managed!for!performance!
improvement!
Psychological!Capital!(PsyCap)!
Individual’s!positive!psychological!state!of!development!that!is!characterized!by!self-efficacy,!
optimism,!hope,!and!resilience!
Talent!Management!
Organization’s!processes!for!attracting,!developing,!retaining,!and!utilizing!people!with!
required!skills!to!meet!current!and!future!business!needs!
Work!Engagement!
Positive!work-related!state!of!mind!that!is!characterized!by!vigour,!dedication,!and!
absorption!
Corporate$Social$Responsibility$
(CSR)$
Organization!taking!responsibility!for!the!impact!of!its!decisions!and!actions!on!its!
stakeholders!
!
W2$CHAPTER$5:$THEORIES$OF$WORK$MOTIVATION$
Motivation$
Extent!to!which!persistent!effort!is!directed!toward!a!goal!
Characteristics:!
- Effort!
- Persistence!
- Direction!
- Goals!
Intrinsic$Motivation$
Motivation!that!stems!from!direct!relationship!between!worker!and!task;!usually!self-
applied!
Extrinsic$Motivation$
Motivation!that!stems!from!work!environment!external!to!the!task;!usually!applied!by!others!
Performance$
Extent!to!which!an!organizational!member!contributes!to!achieving!the!objectives!of!the!
organization!
- 2!forms!of!intelligence!contributing!to!performance:!
1. General$Cognitive$Ability!=!Person’s!basic!information-processing!capacities!and!
cognitive!resources$
2. Emotional$Intelligence!=!Ability!to!understand!and!manage!one’s!own!and!other’s!
feelings!and!emotions$
!
Three$Dimensions$of$Performance$
- Task$Performance$=!constitutes!to!formal!job!description!
- Organizational$Citizenship$Behaviour!=!helps!company!though!not!within!
commitments;!helps!build!org!prestige!
- Counterproductive$Work$Behaviour!=!element!of!choice;!intentional!disruption!
Four-Branch!Model!of!EI!
1. Perceiving!emotions!accurately!in!oneself!and!others!
2. Using!emotions!to!facilitate!thinking!
3. Understanding!emotions,!emotional!language,!and!the!signals!conveyed!by!emotions!
4. Managing!emotions!so!as!to!attain!specific!goals!
Need$Theories$
Motivation!theories!that!specify!the!kinds!of!needs!people!have!and!the!conditions!under!
which!they!will!be!motivated!to!satisfy!these!needs!in!a!way!that!contributes!to!performance!
NEEDS$
à
$BEHAVIOUR$
à
$INCENTIVES$AND$GOALS$
Maslow’s!Hierarchy!of!Needs!
1. Physiological!
2. Safety!
3. Belongingness!
4. Self-Esteem!
5. Self-Actualization!
ERG!Theory!
1. Existence!=!needs!satisfied!materialistically!
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

2. Relatedness!=!exchange!of!thoughts!&!external!communication!
3. Growth!=!self!growth!and!fulfillment!
McClelland’s!Theory!of!Needs!
1. Need!for!Achievement!(n!Ach)!
2. Need!for!Affiliation!(n!Aff)!
3. Need!for!Power!(n!Pow)!
Self-determination!Theory!(SDT)!
Theory!of!motivation!that!considers!whether!people’s!motivation!is!autonomous!or!
controlled!
- Autonomous!Motivation!vs.!Controlled!Motivation!
- Implication:!Autonomy!Support!
Process$Theories$
Motivation!theories!that!specify!the!details!of!how!motivation!occurs!
Expectancy!Theory!
Process!theory!that!states!that!motivation!is!determined!by!the!outcomes!that!people!
expect!to!occur!as!a!result!of!their!actions!on!the!job!
- Components:!
1. Outcomes!
2. Instrumentality!
3. Valence!
4. Expectancy!
5. Force!
- Implication:!Boost!expectancies,!clarify!reward!contingencies,!appreciate!diverse!needs!
Equity$Theory$
Process!theory!that!states!that!motivation!stems!from!a!comparison!of!the!inputs!one!
invests!in!a!job!and!the!outcomes!one!receives!in!comparison!with!the!inputs!and!outcomes!
of!another!person!or!group!
- Implication:!strategies!to!reduce!perceived!inequity!
Goal$Setting$Theory$
Process!theory!that!states!that!goals!are!motivational!when!they!are:!
- Specific!
- Challenging!(Optimal!&!SMART)!
Goals!are!most!effective!
- When!accepted!by!workers!
- When!workers!are!actively!involved!in!setting!them!
- With!frequent!feedback!
!
- Implication:!Set!specific!and!challenging!goals!and!provide!ongoing!feedback!so!that!
individuals!can!compare!their!performance!with!the!goal!
!
W2$CHAPTER$6:$MOTIVATION$IN$PRACTICE$
Piece-rate!
Pay!system!in!which!individual!workers!are!paid!a!certain!sum!of!money!for!each!unit!of!
production!completed!
Wage!Incentive!Plans!
Various!systems!that!link!pay!to!performance!on!production!jobs!
Problem:!lowered!quality,!differential!opportunity,!reduced!cooperation,!incompatible!job!
design,!restriction!of!productivity!
Merit!Pay!Plans!
Similar!to!Wage!Incentive;!white!collar!jobs!instead!
Profit!Sharing!
Return!of!some!company!profit!to!employees!in!form!of!cash!bonus!or!retirement!
supplement!
Employee!Stock!Ownership!Plans!
(ESOPs)!
Incentive!plans!that!allow!employees!to!own!a!set!amount!of!a!company’s!shares!and!
provide!employees!with!a!stake!in!the!company’s!future!earnings!and!success!
Gainsharing!
Group!pay!incentive!plan!based!on!productivity!or!performance!improvements!over!which!
the!workforce!has!some!control!
Skill-based!Pay!
System!in!which!people!are!paid!according!to!the!number!of!job!skills!they!have!acquired!
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version