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COMM 151 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Hawthorne Effect, Scientific Management, Employee Engagement

Course Code
COMM 151
Christopher Miners
Study Guide

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Ch. 1: Organizational Behaviour and Management
Organization: a social invention for accomplishing common goals through group effort
Components of an Organization
Social Inventions:
Ogaizatios’ essetial haateisti is the oodiated pesee of people, not things
OB focuses on understanding people and managing them to work effectively
Goal Accomplishment:
People have to
o Be motivated to join and remain in the organization
o Carry out their basic work reliably, in terms of productivity, quality and service
o Be willing to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skills
o Be flexible and innovative
Group Effort:
Accomplishments are based on a group effort
Organizations depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish their goals
Must get people to practise effective team work
Organization Behaviour
The attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations
o How to structure organizations more effectively and how events in their external
environments affect organizations
Jo satisfatio, oitet to ogaizatio’s goals, suppot fo oe o ioities ito
management positions
Study cooperation, conflict, innovation, resignation and ethical lapses
Closely related to Human Resources management: programs, practices and systems to acquire,
develop, motivate and retain employees in organizations
o OB knowledge helps understand HR management
Question: wjat are the factors that make an organization successful and a great place to work?
Why Study OB
OB is interesting
If you want to know why employees become committed to an organization and what motivates
them to work hard (also useful)
OB includes interesting examples of success and failures
Learning the reasons for behaviours
OB is important
OB has a profound impact on people effects on employees, investors consumers and other
Helps everyone how to be more effective as managers, employees and customers
OB makes a difference
Solid understanding of OB among managers and employees gives company competitive advantage
o Workforce and human capital is what differentiates organizations from competitors
Understanding OB helps create better and more effective management practices that make up a
great place to work for more successful
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Goals of OB
Predicting OB
An essential requirement for everyday life, inside and outside of organizations
Lies ae easie he e a atiipate people’s ehaious ad eotios
o Important when making ethical decisions, creating innovative products, or engaging in
sexual harassment
Thee’s a sietifi foudatio that helps ipoe peditios of ogaizatioal eets
Explaining OB
Understanding why behaviour and events occur
More complicated than predicting behaviour there may be different causes
Different reasons require different solutions
Underlying cases may change over time
Managing OB
Management: getting things accomplished in organizations through others
If behaviour can be predicted and explained, it can often be managed
Need for understanding quality service, ethical behaiou, et
Takes action to manage after analyzing predictions and causes
Evidence-based management: translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into
organizational practices
o Approach problems with systematic understanding
Early Prescriptions Concerning Management
The Classical View and Bureaucracy
Classical viewpoint: belief that effective management requires a high specialization of labour,
intensive coordination, and centralized decision marking
o Each department tended its own affairs, decision making belongs to upper management
“ietifi aageet: Fedeik Talo’s sste fo usig eseah to deteie the optiu
degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks
Bueaua: Ma Wee’s ideal tpe of ogaizatio
o Strict chain of command, members report to only a single superior
o Criteria for selection and promotion based on impersonal technical skills no
o A set of detailed rules. Regulations, and procedure to ensure that jobs get done regardless
of who the specific worker is
o Use of strict specialization to match duties with technical competencies
o Centralization of power at the top of organization
Human Relationship Mvmt and Critique of Bureaucracy
Hawthorne studies: done at Hawthorne plant that illustrated how psychological and social processes
affect productivity and work adjustment
o Resistance to management through strong informal group mechanisms, such as norm that
limited productivity to less than what management wanted
Human relations mvmt: promoted that
o Strict specialization prevented growth and achievements can lead to employee alienation
from the organization and its clients
o Strong centralization and reliance on formal authority blocks out creative ideas and
knowledge of lower-level employees lower adaptability, rarely learn from mistakes, low
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o Strict, impersonal rules lead to employees put in minimum acceptable effort
o Strong specialization causes employees to lose sight of the overall goals of organization
Contemporary Management Contingency Approach
Approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage
Appropriate action varies case to case
Effective leadership must follow a contingency approach reflects the complexity of OB and show
why we should study it systematically
What do Managers do?
Managerial Roles:
Interpersonal roles: figurehead symbol of organization, leadership select, mentor, reward and
discipline employees, liaison maintain horizontal contacts inside and outside organization
Informational Roles: monitor scan internal and external environments to be informed and keep up
with trends, disseminator send info on facts and preferences to others, spokesperson sending
essages ito the ogaizatio’s eteal eioet
Decisional roles: entrepreneur turn problems and opportunities into plans, disturbance handler
deal with employee conflicts and address threats to resources and turf, resource allocation how to
deploy time, money, personnel and other resources, negotiator conduct negotiations to other
major organizations or individuals
Managerial Activities
Routine communication: formal sending and receiving of information and handling paperwork
Traditional management: planning, decision making, controlling
Networking: interacting with people outside of the organization and informal socializing and
politicking with insiders
HR management: motivating and reinforcing, disciplining and punishing, managing conflict, staffing,
and training and developing employees
Managerial Agendas:
Agenda setting: set goals for what they want to accomplish with organization, agendas are often
informal and are set through discussion with a variety of people
Networking: need to have a wide formal and informal network of people in/outside of organization,
network provides managers with info and established cooperative relationships relevant to their
agenda, can call on favours
Agenda implementation: use network for help, employ influence tactics (direct orders and subtle
Managerial Minds
Understanding how managers think
Use of intuition to:
o sense when a problem exists,
o perform well-learned mental tasks quickly,
o synthesize isolated pieces of data and info, and
o double check more formal or mechanical analyses
International Managers:
adapts to cross-cultural differences to connect with potential clients and overseas affiliates
leadership styles vary based on where the leader is in the world
Contemporary Management Concerns
Diversity local and Global
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