Study Guides (238,586)
Canada (115,230)
Commerce (450)
COMM 190 (14)

Notes 190.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

Queen's University
COMM 190
Mosey Nicholas J

Comm 190 Chapter 1 Q1 What is an information system - Information system: a group of components that interact to produce information - Five-component framework: computer hardware, software (applications), data, procedures, people Q2 What is MIS - Management information system: the development and use of information systems that help businesses achieve their goals and objectives o Development and use o Information systems o Business goals and objectives Q3 How does IS differ from IT? - Information technology: methods, inventions, standards and product Q4 How important are IS to our economy - Information and Communications Technologies sector: the industry sector most closely related to the use of information systems in Canada - big supplier of jobs - service industry growing Q5 How do successful business professionals use IS? - Core skills: technical, specific technology and industry, and satisfactory communications and other business skills Q6 What is the shape of things to come - Moore’s Law: predicts that the number of transistors on a computer chip would double roughly every two years Chapter 2 Q2 What is a business process? - Business process: a network of activities, resources, facilities, and information that interact to achieve some business objective (business system) o Manufacturing process o Sales process o Customer-support process Q3 What are the components of a business process? - Activities: transform resources and information of one type into resources and information of another type - Resources: items of value - Facilities: structures used within the business process - Information: knowledge derived from data; data is recorded facts or figures Q4 What is information? - Data presented in meaningful context - Processed data - Good information o Accurate o Timely o Relevant ( to context / to subject) o Just sufficient o Worth its cost Q5 What is the role of information in business processes? - Business process management: a field of management that promotes the development of effective and efficient processes through continuous improvement and innovation Q6 How do information systems support business processes? - Used by the business process, but the particular relationship variess among the processes - Automated system: work formerly done by people following procedures has been moved so that computers now do hat work following instructions in software - Manual system: more work done by person that computer and software - Information systems: counter, payments, and purchasing Q7 How do information systems support decision making? - Decision level: o Operational decisions: concern day-to-day activities  Transaction processing systems: support operational decisions o Managerial decisions: concern the allocation and utilization of resources  Management information systems: support managerial decisions o Strategic decisions: concern broader organizational issues  Executive information systems: support strategic decisions - Structured decisions: one for which there is an understood and accepted method for making the decision - Unstructured decision: one for which there is no agreed-upon decision-making method - Decision-making steps o Intelligence gathering: the decision makers determine what is to be decided, what the criteria for the decision will be, and what data is available o Alternatives formulating: decision makers lay out various alternatives o Choice o Implementation o Review Chapter 10 Q5 How is the IT Department Organized - Organizational structures varies depending on the organizations size, culture, competitive environment, industry, and other factors - Chief Information officer (CIO): he principal manager of the IT department title o Reports to CEO and COO o Technology  Chief Technology officer (CTO): heads the technology group by sorting through new ideas and products to identify those that are most relevant to the organization o Operations: manages computing infrastructure o Development: manages projects that acquire new information systems and maintain existing ones  Business analysts: involved in developing the business case for a newly proposed system and developing the requirements for the system  System Analysts: involved in designing and implementing the new system o Outsourcing: negotiated outsourcing agreements with other companies to provide equipment, applications, or other services - Web design projects require o Project manager o Lead designer/analyst o Developer o Technical architect Q6 What IS-Related Job Positions Exist? - See page 301, figure 10-3 Chapter 3 Q1 What is the Productivity Paradox? - Productivity paradox: we see computers everywhere except in the productivity statistics – Robert Solow - Productivity: how IT can be used to create business value - Business value: tangible benefits for organizations through either more efficient use of resources or more effective delivery of their services to customers Q2 Can Information Systems Improve Productivity? - Efficiency: business process can be accomplished more quickly or with fewer resources and facilities “doing things right” - Effectiveness: offering either new or improves goods or services that the customer values “doing the right things” - Value chain: a network of activities that improve the effectiveness (or value) of a good or service - Margin: the difference between the cost the customer is willing to pay and the cost the company incurs in moving the goods or services through the value chain - Primary activities: activities in which value is added directly to the product - Support activities: add value on indirectly - See Figure 3-2 page 63, Porter’s Value Chain Model - In-bound logistics: receiving, storing and disseminating inputs to the product - Operations: transforming inputs into the final product - Out-bound logistics: collecting, storing, and physically distributing the product to buyers - Marketing and sales: inducing buyers to purchase the product and providing a means for them to do so - Service: assisting customer’s use of the product and thus maintaining and enhancing the product’s value Q3 How Are Organizational Strategy and Industry Structure Related? - See Figure 3-5 page 66 Porter’s Model of Industry Structure - Five force model: five competitive forces determine industry: bargaining power of customers, threat of substitution, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of new entrants, and rivalry among existing firms - Competitive strategy (porter): an organization can focus on being the cost leader or it can focus on differentiating its products from those of the competitive. Further, and organization can employ the cost or differentiation strategy across an industry, or it can focus its strategy on a particular industry statement - See Figure 3-6 page 67 Porter’s Four competitive strategies Q4 What is the Relationship between Innovation and Information Technology? - Sustaining Technologies: changes in technology that maintain the rate of improvement in customer value - Disruptive technologies: introduce a very new package of attributes to the accepted mainstream products - Diffusion of innovation: the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system o Knowledge > Persuasion > Decision > Implementation > Confirmation Q5 How Do Information Systems Provide Competitive Advantage? - Switching costs: organizations can lock in customers by making it difficult or expensive for them to switch to another product - Product implementations o Create a new product or service o Enhance products or services o Differentiate products or services - System implementations o Lock in customers and buyers o Lock in suppliers o Raise barriers to market entry o Establish alliances o Reduce costs Q6 Can Competitive Advantage through Information Systems Be Sustained? - Sustained competitive advantage: emphasis should be placed on developing increasingly sophisticated integration between information technology and the people and procedures in the organization Chapter 4 Q2 Where Did All This Information Technology Stuff Come From? - First patent on a digital computer 1939-1952 - Mainframes: commercial digital computers were large, room-sized and used by business and government (1952-present) - Microcomputers: often had no display screen or monitor and required users to develop their own programs (1975) - LAN: revolutionized business computing y providing shared access to data, printers, and other peripheral devise (1985) Q3 What Does a Manager Need to Know about Computer Hardware? - Hardware: electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output and store data according to instructions encoded in computer programs or software - See Figure 4.4 What a Manger Needs to Know about Hardware page 88 - Input hardware devices: include the keyboard, mouse, document scanners, and barcode scanners - Process o Central processing unit (CPU): something called the “brain of the computer” selects instructions, processes them, performs arithmetic and logical comparisons, and stores results of operations in memory o Main Memory o Special functions cards: can be added to the computer to augment its basic capabilities - Output hardware: video displays, printers, audio speakers, overhead projectors, and other special-purpose devices, such as large flatbed plotters - Storage hardware: saves data and programs - Binary digits (bits): (0 or 1) used for computer data because they are easy to represent physically - Bytes: bits grouped into 8-bit chunks (one byte per character) - Kilobyte (K) is 1024 bytes, Megabyte (MB) is 1024K, Gigabyte (GB) is 1024MB, Terabyte (TB) is 1024GB - See figure 4-10 Computer parts on page 91 - Data Channel (bus): instructions move through from main memory to CPU - Cache: very fast memory - Operating system: controls the computer’s resources as well as a block of data - Memory swapping: removing something and replacing just-requested program or data into the vacated space - Volatile: contents are lost when the computer is off (cache) - Non-volatile: contents are not lost (optical disk) - Hertz: cycles CPU speed is expressed in Q4 What is the difference between a client and a Server, and What is Cloud Computing? - Client: computers for word processing, spreadsheets, database access. . . - Servers: provides services - Cloud computing: customer do not necessarily own he computer they use (internet) - Grid computers: several computers are used to address a single problem Q5 What Does a Manager Need to Know about Software? - Instruction set: commands that a CPU can process - Windows
More Less

Related notes for COMM 190

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.