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Notes 190.docx

17 Pages
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Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 190
Professor
Mosey Nicholas J

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Description
Comm 190 Chapter 1 Q1 What is an information system - Information system: a group of components that interact to produce information - Five-component framework: computer hardware, software (applications), data, procedures, people Q2 What is MIS - Management information system: the development and use of information systems that help businesses achieve their goals and objectives o Development and use o Information systems o Business goals and objectives Q3 How does IS differ from IT? - Information technology: methods, inventions, standards and product Q4 How important are IS to our economy - Information and Communications Technologies sector: the industry sector most closely related to the use of information systems in Canada - big supplier of jobs - service industry growing Q5 How do successful business professionals use IS? - Core skills: technical, specific technology and industry, and satisfactory communications and other business skills Q6 What is the shape of things to come - Moore’s Law: predicts that the number of transistors on a computer chip would double roughly every two years Chapter 2 Q2 What is a business process? - Business process: a network of activities, resources, facilities, and information that interact to achieve some business objective (business system) o Manufacturing process o Sales process o Customer-support process Q3 What are the components of a business process? - Activities: transform resources and information of one type into resources and information of another type - Resources: items of value - Facilities: structures used within the business process - Information: knowledge derived from data; data is recorded facts or figures Q4 What is information? - Data presented in meaningful context - Processed data - Good information o Accurate o Timely o Relevant ( to context / to subject) o Just sufficient o Worth its cost Q5 What is the role of information in business processes? - Business process management: a field of management that promotes the development of effective and efficient processes through continuous improvement and innovation Q6 How do information systems support business processes? - Used by the business process, but the particular relationship variess among the processes - Automated system: work formerly done by people following procedures has been moved so that computers now do that work following instructions in software - Manual system: more work done by person that computer and software - Information systems: counter, payments, and purchasing Q7 How do information systems support decision making? - Decision level: o Operational decisions: concern day-to-day activities  Transaction processing systems: support operational decisions o Managerial decisions: concern the allocation and utilization of resources  Management information systems: support managerial decisions o Strategic decisions: concern broader organizational issues  Executive information systems: support strategic decisions - Structured decisions: one for which there is an understood and accepted method for making the decision - Unstructured decision: one for which there is no agreed-upon decision-making method - Decision-making steps o Intelligence gathering: the decision makers determine what is to be decided, what the criteria for the decision will be, and what data is available o Alternatives formulating: decision makers lay out various alternatives o Choice o Implementation o Review Chapter 10 Q5 How is the IT Department Organized - Organizational structures varies depending on the organizations size, culture, competitive environment, industry, and other factors - Chief Information officer (CIO): the principal manager of the IT department title o Reports to CEO and COO o Technology  Chief Technology officer (CTO): heads the technology group by sorting through new ideas and products to identify those that are most relevant to the organization o Operations: manages computing infrastructure o Development: manages projects that acquire new information systems and maintain existing ones  Business analysts: involved in developing the business case for a newly proposed system and developing the requirements for the system  System Analysts: involved in designing and implementing the new system o Outsourcing: negotiated outsourcing agreements with other companies to provide equipment, applications, or other services - Web design projects require o Project manager o Lead designer/analyst o Developer o Technical architect Q6 What IS-Related Job Positions Exist? - See page 301, figure 10-3 Chapter 3 Q1 What is the Productivity Paradox? - Productivity paradox: we see computers everywhere except in the productivity statistics – Robert Solow - Productivity: how IT can be used to create business value - Business value: tangible benefits for organizations through either more efficient use of resources or more effective delivery of their services to customers Q2 Can Information Systems Improve Productivity? - Efficiency: business process can be accomplished more quickly or with fewer resources and facilities “doing things right” - Effectiveness: offering either new or improved goods or services that the customer values “doing the right things” - Value chain: a network of activities that improve the effectiveness (or value) of a good or service - Margin: the difference between the cost the customer is willing to pay and the cost the company incurs in moving the goods or services through the value chain - Primary activities: activities in which value is added directly to the product - Support activities: add value on indirectly - See Figure 3-2 page 63, Porter’s Value Chain Model - In-bound logistics: receiving, storing and disseminating inputs to the product - Operations: transforming inputs into the final product - Out-bound logistics: collecting, storing, and physically distributing the product to buyers - Marketing and sales: introducing buyers to purchase the product and providing a means for them to do so - Service: assisting customer’s use of the product and thus maintaining and enhancing the product’s value Q3 How Are Organizational Strategy and Industry Structure Related? - See Figure 3-5 page 66 Porter’s Model of Industry Structure - Five force model: five competitive forces determine industry: bargaining power of customers, threat of substitution, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of new entrants, and rivalry among existing firms - Competitive strategy (porter): an organization can focus on being the cost leader or it can focus on differentiating its products from those of the competitive. Further, an organization can employ the cost or differentiation strategy across an industry, or it can focus its strategy on a particular industry segment - See Figure 3-6 page 67 Porter’s Four competitive strategies Q4 What is the Relationship between Innovation and Information Technology? - Sustaining Technologies: changes in technology that maintain the rate of improvement in customer value - Disruptive technologies: introduce a very new package of attributes to the accepted mainstream products - Diffusion of innovation: the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system o Knowledge > Persuasion > Decision > Implementation > Confirmation Q5 How Do Information Systems Provide Competitive Advantage? - Switching costs: organizations can lock in customers by making it difficult or expensive for them to switch to another product - Product implementations o Create a new product or service o Enhance products or services o Differentiate products or services - System implementations o Lock in customers and buyers o Lock in suppliers o Raise barriers to market entry o Establish alliances o Reduce costs Q6 Can Competitive Advantage through Information Systems Be Sustained? - Sustained competitive advantage: emphasis should be placed on developing increasingly sophisticated integration between information technology and the people and procedures in the organization Chapter 4 Q2 Where Did All This Information Technology Stuff Come From? - First patent on a digital computer 1939-1952 - Mainframes: commercial digital computers were large, room-sized and used by business and government (1952-present) - Microcomputers: often had no display screen or monitor and required users to develop their own programs (1975) - LAN: revolutionized business computing by providing shared access to data, printers, and other peripheral devise (1985) Q3 What Does a Manager Need to Know about Computer Hardware? - Hardware: electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output and store data according to instructions encoded in computer programs or software - See Figure 4.4 What a Manger Needs to Know about Hardware page 88 - Input hardware devices: include the keyboard, mouse, document scanners, and barcode scanners - Process o Central processing unit (CPU): something called the “brain of the computer” selects instructions, processes them, performs arithmetic and logical comparisons, and stores results of operations in memory o Main Memory o Special functions cards: can be added to the computer to augment its basic capabilities - Output hardware: video displays, printers, audio speakers, overhead projectors, and other special-purpose devices, such as large flatbed plotters - Storage hardware: saves data and programs - Binary digits (bits): (0 or 1) used for computer data because they are easy to represent physically - Bytes: bits grouped into 8-bit chunks (one byte per character) - Kilobyte (K) is 1024 bytes, Megabyte (MB) is 1024K, Gigabyte (GB) is 1024MB, Terabyte (TB) is 1024GB - See figure 4-10 Computer parts on page 91 - Data Channel (bus): instructions move through from main memory to CPU - Cache: very fast memory - Operating system: controls the computer’s resources as well as a block of data - Memory swapping: removing something and replacing just-requested program or data into the vacated space - Volatile: contents are lost when the computer is off (cache) - Non-volatile: contents are not lost (optical disk) - Hertz: cycles CPU speed is expressed in Q4 What is the difference between a client and a Server, and What is Cloud Computing? - Client: computers for word processing, spreadsheets, database access. . . - Servers: provides services - Cloud computing: customer do not necessarily own he computer they use (internet) - Grid computers: several computers are used to address a single problem Q5 What Does a Manager Need to Know about Software? - Instruction set: commands that a CPU can process - Windows: Microsft Windows Runs intel instruction set –user friendly - Mac OS: Macintosh – artsy user friendsly - Unix: Bell labs –engineering scientific, challenging to use - Linux: open-source community, mainly server - Licences are sold to you to use programs - Application software: consists of programs that perform a business function - Horizontal-market application: software provides capabilities common across all organization and industries - Vertical-market application: software serves the needs of specific industry - One-of-a-kind application: software is developed for a specific, unique, need - Customer-developed software: tailor-made software - Firmware: computer software that is installed into devices like printers, print servers, and various types of communication devices - Basic Input/output system: important piece of firmware used when computer initially is booted up - Thin client: an application that requires nothing more than a browser - Thick client: requires programs other than a browser on the user’s computer Chapter 7 Q1 What Are the Fundamental Types of IS within Organizations? - Calculation systems: first information system built to relieve workers of tedious, repetitive calculations - Functional system: second era facilitated the work of a single department or business function - Functional silos: functional applications are designed to work independently of one another - Integreated/Cross-functional (cross-departmental): designed to integrate the activities cross departmental boundaries - Interorgagnizational systems: systems used by two or more related companies Q2 What Are Functional Systems and Why Are They Changing? - See figure 7.4 Typical Functional Systems page 213 - Product management: the primary functional system for marketing o Lead tracking: records prospects and keeps track of sales contacts with potential customers o Sales forecasting o Customer management: to generate follow-up business from existing customers - Operations systems: used by non-manufacturers, such as distributors and retailers and support the primary activities in the value chain o Order entry o Order management: systems track orders through the fulfillment process o Inventory management: systems analyze sales activity and generate product orders as required o Customer service - Manufacturing information systems: support the transformation of material into products o Push production planning: the organization creates a production plan or schedule and pushes goods through manufacturing and sales o Pull production planning: responds to customer demand o Scheduling system: help organizations determine optimal methods o Manufacturing operations systems: control manufacturing plants and machines - Human resource system o Payroll o Related compensation systems o Recruiting o Assessing employee performance o HR planning systems: ensure that sufficient numbers of workers with appropriate skills will be available to fill needed job requirements - Accounting functional systems: support all of the organization’s accounting activities o General ledger o Financial reporting o Accounts receivable o Accounts payable systems o Cost accounting o Budgeting o Cash management o Treasury management: management of the organization’s stocks and bonds, borrowings, and capital investments Q3 What Is the Importance of Industry Standard Processes? - Business process design: organizations should not simply automate or improve existing functional systems – it must redesign - Industry standard processes: business application from companies are acquired and this is the process for using the software Q4 What Are CRM Systems? - Customer relationship management (CRM) systems: support the business process of attracting, selling, managing, delivering, and supporting customers - Customer life cycle: marketing, customer acquisition, relationship management, and loss/churn - CRM uses solicitation, relationship management (postsale) and lead tracking (presale) Q5 What are ERP Systems? - Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems: an outgrowth of materials resource planning (MRP), and the primary ERP users are manufacturing companies. Represents the ultimate in cross-departmental process systems o Entire organization is considered a collection of interrelated activities o A formal approach that is based on documented, tested business models o Process blueprint: comprehensive set of inherent processes for all organizational activities o maintains data in centralized database o offers large benefits but is difficult, fraught with challenges, and be slow to implement o very expensive Q6 What Are E-commerce and Web 2.0? - interorganizational systems: information systems that work across organizations - E-commerce: is the buying and selling of goods and services over public and private computer networks o Issues: channel conflict, price conflict, logistics expense, customer service expense - Web 2.0: focuses on providing services that can be accessed by a large number of people, and recognizes the importance of the user as part of the system, providing data and information that makes the service better, the creation of unique and difficult-to-develop data improves when larger numbers of people use the system - Merchant companies: those that take title to the goods they sell: they buy goods to resell them - Nonmerchant companies: are those that arrange for the purchase and sale of goods without ever owning or taking title to those goods - Business-to-consumer (B2C): e-commerce concerns sales between a supplier and retail customer - Business-to-business (B2B): e-commerce refers to sales between companies - Business-to-government (B2G): refers to sales between companies and governmental organizations - E-commerce auctions: match buyers and sellers by using an e-commerce version of a standard auction - Clearinghouses: provide goods and services at a stated price and arrange for the delivery of the goods, but never take the title - Electronic exchanges: match buyers and sellers; the business process is similar to that of a stock exchange - Disintermediation: elim
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