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MIS Final Exam Review.docx

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COMM 190
Shaun Cahill

MIS Final Exam Review Ch7 Q7 Ch11 Q3-Q4 Ch6 Q1,2,4,8 IT Strategy In Action Article Link for skills to be successful IT executive Ch11 Q5-Q6 Ch 10 Q7 Outsourcing link Managing the IT portfolio Ch 10 Q1-Q6 Cases CRM at Minitrex Genex Fuels MaxTrade Investing in CUFs ModMeters Project Management at MM Ch7 Q7 Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems – support the business of attracting, selling, managing, delivering, and supporting customers i.e. Maximizer Software, Oracle/Siebel Systems Customer Life Cycle 1. Marketing – Attract (Solicitation Processes) 2. Customer Acquisition – Sell (Lead-Tracking) 3. Relationship Management – Support and Resell (Relationship Management) 4. Loss/Churn – Categorize (Relationship Management) Solicitation – generate prospects via messages to target market, use email, websites, and other IS messaging media, support direct mail, catalogue, other traditional promotion Lead Tracking (pre sale) – Track sales leads, customer responses, and contacts. Prioritize responses to maximize new customer revenue Relationship Management (post sale) – Maximize the value of the existing customer base using sales management applications and customer support applications. Focus on reselling n high value customers and winning back lost high value customers Sales management applications – support sales to existing customers. Have features that prioritize customers according to their purchase history Integrated CRM applications – store data in a single database, so that CRM processes can be linked i.e. customer service activities can be linked to customer purchase records so that sales and marketing know the status of customer satisfaction; customer support has an important linkage to product marketing and development because it knows more than any other group what customers are doing with the product and what problems they are having with it The Operating Model – a target for a company that defines fundamentally how it wants to operate Standardization – consistency in processes Integration – sharing data High Coordination Uniquebusinesseswith Unification a need to knoweach globalprocessand sata other'stransactions standards and relationships Platrform:Standard Platrform:easyaccess businessprocessesand to shareddata for shareddataaccess Business decisionmaking Process/ Data Diversification Integration Independent Replication Businesseswith Independentbut differentcustomers, similarbusinessunits pexpertisePlatform:d Platform:Standard SharedServicesfor businessprocessesfor scalebutwith efficiency independence Low Low High Business Process Standardization Prediversification – No integration or standardization -there is no one best quadrant – depends on who you are, your business, your customers -SAP round one was replication/diversification Diversification model Example – P&G Decentralized organizational design – business units pursue different markets with different products and services and benefit from local autonomy in deciding how to address customer needs -few shared customers and suppliers -operationally unique business units -autonomous business unit management -business units control process design -few data standards across business units -most IS decisions made at business unit level Coordination model Example – PepsiAmericas Focuses on integration – the company creates a single face to its customers or a transparent supply chain without forcing specific processes and/or product/service standards on its operating units -shared customers and/or suppliers -operationally unique business units -autonomous business unit management -business units control process design -shared customer and product data -IS applications decisions made in business units Replication Model Example – ING Direct (has few shared customers/suppliers but centralized control of process design, cannot share data since international), Marriot hotels (locally owned) Focuses on Standardization – business units perform tasks the same way using the same systems so that they can generate global efficiencies and brand recognition, however, business units rarely interact -few shared customers and/or suppliers -business units with similar operations -centralized control of process design -standardized data definitions but business units own their data -centrally mandated IS services Unification Model Example – UPS, airlines Centralized organizational design – the company pursues the need for reliability, predictability and low cost by standardizing business processes and sharing data across business units to create an end-to-end view of operations and a single face to the customer -shared customers and suppliers: local and/or global -globally integrated business processes often with enterprise IS -business processes with similar operations -centrally mandated databases -IS decisions made centrally Ch11 Q3-Q4 IT architecture – the basic framework for all the computers, systems, and info management that support organizational services – think of it like a city plan; lays out the street network, water system, power grids, emergency services etc. -is usually a long document with many sections that include quite complicated diagrams as well as management policies (such as privacy, sourcing and security) and discussion of future changes to the architecture Enterprise architect – the job description for the person who creates the blueprint of an organization’s IS and the management of these systems, taking into consideration organizational objectives, business processes, databases, info flows, operating systems, applications and software, and supporting technology Enterprise architecture – a model for understanding how an organization’s process, technology and data are linked and related. Increasing complexity in IT systems has been the driver and justification for EA adoption. There are two key types of enterprise architecture models: As is and to be Linking business concepts down to their physical components: Zachman’s Systems Architecture Data Function Network Business Scope List of Data List of Functions List of locations Entities Functional Model Entities and Functional Communication Relationships Decomposition links Logical Model Data Model Process Model Network Model Physical Design Database Design Process Network Design Specifications Systems Databases Software Hardware and Development Applications Operating System -the same concept can be used to look at the entire enterprise, requiring some additional dimensions: Zachman framework – a method that organizes the development of IT architecture. Divides systems into two dimensions: One is based on six reasons for communications (what – data, how – function, where – network, who – people, when – time, why – motivation) and the other is based on stakeholder groups (planner, owner, designer, builder, implementer, and worker) Alignment – the process of matching organizational objectives with IT architecture -communication between business and IT executives -IT dept’s missions, objectives and plans should overlap with the overall business’ missions, objectives and plans Ch6 Q1,2,4,8 Collaboration – occurs when two or more people work together to achieve a common goal, result, or product. The effectiveness of a collaborative effort is driven by 4 critical factors: 1. Communication skills & culture 2. Communication systems 3. Content Management 4. Workflow control Workflow – a process or procedure by which content is created, edited, used, and disposed of. Specifies a particular ordering of tasks and includes processes for handling rejected changes as well as for dealing with exceptions. Very similar to a business process, but a business process focuses on delivering a good or service externally to a customer, whereas workflow focuses on delivering a good or service internally to other employees Network externality – the larger the number of people using a network, the more valuable that network becomes Computer network – a collection of computers that transmit and/or receive electronic signals through transmission media What causes networks to break down? Too much information (too many users), scheduled maintenance, the ‘backhoe effect’ (i.e. a wire breaks), human error (i.e. unplug wire, trip on it, use wrong one etc) Bandwidth – think of networks as a series of pipes that are only so wide, wider pipes means faster speed (basically Gilder’s law – bandwidth doubling) Transmission media – could be physical media, like copper cable and optical fibre cable, or wireless media transmitting light or radio frequencies (including cellular and satellite system0 Local area network (LAN) – connects computers within a relatively small, single geographic location. Can range from two to several hundred connected compiters. The distinguishing characteristic of a LAN is that it is in a single location. Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers at different geographical locations -The Internet and internets are networks of networks, connecting LANs, WANs and other internets What is the difference between The Internet and The Web? -the internet is a network of networks, a web of networks -the Web is the content available on the internet -you don’t ‘go to a website’, you download the website and view it Protocol – a set of rules that two communicating devices follow. For two devices to communicate, they must both use the same protocol i.e. TCP-IP for the internet transmission M-commerce – applications that allow users to conduct new kinds of transactions, like mobile banking and mobile ticket purchases, track delivery of pizza, mobile coupons etc. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) – employees are encouraged to simply use their own devices for work rather than be provided with additional company-issued devices Web search engines require two things: 1) a way to collect URLS and 2) a method for storing/accessing the URLs so that they can be searched Web Crawler – a software program that browses the Web in a very methodical way to find URLs. Can also be used to maintain corporate websites (make sure links are still active, validate HTML code on the site) Crawl frontier – the list of the URLs created by the crawler Search engine indexing – different programs work to create indexes for the results from the web crawling. The indexes provide the ability to make fast searches from a vast amount of information -search engines make money through ads or placing certain results at the top of search results IT Strategy In Action Article -an organization’s needs for IT essentially parallel Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Level 1 Needs – at the most basic level, organization’s require a competent IT organization that delivers basic IT services to the business. IT must demonstrate that it can consistently deliver cost efficient services as well as essential security, reliability, and integrity of data Level 2 Needs – at the next level, organization’s need a credible IT organization that delivers high-quality systems that meet real organizational goals on time and on budget Level 1 Business Needs Level 2 Business Level 3 Business Needs Needs Objectives Establish IT competence Build Credibility Develop Partnerships Audience IT staff and operational Business Executive managers Managers Committee and Board of Directors Strategies Discipline and Controls Hug your user Use IT to solve Damage controls Make it easy to do business problems business with IT Show how IT is integral to business strategy Pitfalls Promise more than IT can Trying to direct Automating deliver business strategy processes; not re- using IT engineering Timeframe < 1 year Medium term: 1-2 Longer term: 2-5 years years Success No news is good news IT is consulted IT is at the Criterion about decisions decision making table Perceptions SERVICE PROVIDER CREDIBLE STRATEGIC of IS leader ADVISOR PARTNER Level 3 Needs – after credibility has been established, organizations need an IT partner to help guide and direct the organization’s use of technology to achieve the organization’s strategic objectives -even if an IT organization is acting as a business partner, failure to met lower level needs will refocus the business on addressing those needs and could result in anxiety and frustration, manifesting itself into hostility toward IT -new level 3 need: relationship, need for more communication to ensure that goals are fully understood and acted upon -new level four need: trust in the IT function itself and the agreement on four elements: the role of IT, that IT is doing the right things, that IT is doing things right, that IT is positioning the organization well for the future -new level five need: value, IT deliver real business value to the organization Link for skills to be successful IT executive 1. Know your leadership style – know what you do well and where you need to work 2. Focus on strategic communication – knowing how to deliver your message to different audience 3. Learn how to develop talented high-performance teams – ability to get things done through other people 4. Develop a strong technology strategy – being able to turn a vision into an executable strategy 5. Understand complex business problems 6. Know how to lead in a crisis – recognize a crisis when it happens, manage it and guide your team to stay ahead of the curve 7. Be able to market IT to the business – educate peers and stakeholders on the value that IT can bring to the table 8. Know the corporate culture and be willing to change it Role of the CIO – develop the IT plan of the firm, implement IT systems and address IT needs in the firm Careerist CIO  Stays with the company, progressing through various responsibilities  Functional success makes them a candidate for CIO role  Typically has solid grounding in the business and/or has technical depth  Has ability to build coalitions and consensus as a team player Professional CIO  Hopes to advance professionally by becoming CIO for increasingly large, prestigious or more visible companies  Focuses on bringing particular IT skill set to serve enterprise  Ideal job is an IT turnaround situation Enterprise- wide Enabler Strategist Technologist Innovator IT Function only Transactional Transformational (Manager) (Leader) -transactional leaders get the job done, while transformational leaders inspire and lead and create the vision -strategist covers all three needs, innovator only 1 and 2 and a little bit of 3, enabler and technologist 1 and a little bit of 2 Ch11 Q5-Q6 Governance – the development of consistent, cohesive management policies and verifiable internal processes for IT and related services. The goal of IS governance is to improve the benefits of an organization’s IT investment over time. By better aligning with business objectives, improving service quality, and controlling IT risks stakeholder value can be increased -a framework of decision rights (who makes what decision) and accountabilities (who is responsible for ensuring the decision is implemented) -reporting structures and review processes can be established and can work over a period to improve quality, reduce service costs and delivery time, reduce IT risks, and better support business processes -laws like the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX) and Bill 168 (Budget Measures Act) force companies to comply with governance standards for collecting, reporting, and disclosing information ^ Benefits created from IT governance Information Systems Audit – examination and verification of a company’s information resources that are used to collect, store, process and retrieve information The result of increased reporting compliance should be improved alignment between organizational strategy and business objectives Typical IS Governance looks like: Executive IT committee Top executives including CIO Strategic IS planning, oversight of major IS projects IT Steering committee Business unit managers, operations managers, IS managers Oversee progress on critical IS development projects User Management Committee User Managers, IS staff Manage IS projects, manage IS systems Why should we care about IS governance? Increased need to report and disclose operation info will require employees at all levels of an organization to become more familiar with the issues facing IT management -senior business managers are required to make assertions about the controls on IS that wil expose them to financial and criminal penalties Enron example – lack of accounting oversign and IS governance, senior mgmt. used a lack of internal controls and weak IS governance to manipulate info to shareholders, accountants, regulators and others. Was the biggest fraud in the US to that time and led to the passing of SOX in the US COBIT – Control Objectives for Information and related Technology Example -COBIT provides policies and standards for business processes, IS structure/culture, IS people/skills, applications, infrastructure and data -IT governance framework and supporting toolset that allows managers to bridge the gap between control requirements RACI Decision making framework Recommends – responsible to recommend a decision to the problem Approves – authorized to approve and be accountable for the decision Consulted – Those whose opinions are sought, and with whom there is two way communication Informed – Those who are informed after the decision is made, and with whom there is one way communication Ch 10 Q7 Outsourcing – the process of hiring another organization to perform a service -from Industrial age organization to info age organization Offshoring – same as outsourcing but the vendor is overseas Reasons for outsourcing:  Easy way to gain expertise  Cost reductions  Get part time services  Reduce development risk – set specific prices on components of a system  Reduce implementation risk – risk of picking the wrong hardware/software, using the wrong network protocol, implementing incorrectly  Concentrate company resources on core competencies Risks of outsourcing:  Loss of control over project  Outsource vendor could change pricing strategy over time  High unit cost, could pay for someone else’s mismanagement, may not get what you pay for but don’t know it  No easy exit – critical knowledge in minds of vendors rather than employees and is expensive/risky to change vendors  Poorer service quality – internal people know better than outsourcers what the company really needs  Lag in technology – make a contract and then technology changes, outsourcing vendor has no incentive to update technology – therefore contracts are increasingly becoming
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