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Sociology 122 Exam Review

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ECON 111
Ian James Cromb

THINKING SOCIOLOGICALLY PART 1Main Topicsfoundational issues to human like and human knowledgeissues of Metatheorythe Orthodox Consensus of postWar sociologyScience Sociology and DiscourseFoundational Issues to considerwhat is the ultimate foundation to social lifeWhat is the foundation to scientific knowledgeWhat is the foundation to knowledge about social lifeMetatheorysociology as a sciencescience as an artthe role of language in science elements of an integrated sociological conception of social like micromacro structureagency relational nature of social reality reflexivityFrye Human beings engage with the world at 3 different levels 1 contemplative like this 2 active I dont like this 3 imaginativethis is not how I imagined this the mind intellect and emotions is involved at each levelintellect is basis to scienceemotions become basis to the artsScience and the Arts not completely divergentA highly developed science and a highly develop art are very close together Sciencestems from the intellectemphasis on observation and classificationgrasps regularitiesprogresses in accuracy and utilitydraws upon creativity of emotions and imaginationlanguage is a critical dimension of scienceThe Artsstem from the emotionslimitless potentialcomparative standards of excellenceemploys aspects of reality and like experience with imagination Sociology Science and The Artslike science sociology is commited to analysis and comprehension of relative enduring realitylike science and the arts language and creativity are critical to sociologys comprehension of complex social worldthe domain of sociology is the level of action identified by Frye where intellect and emotions combine the humanization of the worldThomas Kuhnrejected developmentbyaccumulation explanation for the scientific processscience natural and social progresses as conceptual frameworks paradigms or disciplinary matrices are refined rethought reimagined Michael Foucaulthumankind creates order to its world the intellect begins with some principles of order to observe and classifyan episteme is a fundamental code of a cultureallows us to order observationsall areas of knowledge the arts and sciences produceperceive order on the basis of the same epistemeThe modern episteme is rooted in process action and change the EnlightenmentConsensusNautral sciences dominated by paradigmsSociology no single paradigm has dominatedLate 40s60s Orthodox Consensusstructuralfunctionalism and naturalismKey person is Talcott parsonsTalcott Parsonssubstantive reasonstime and placea scientific approach to social phenomenaStructure of Social Action and The Social System addressed full ragnge of human actionEmphasis shifted to the social systemCriticismOveremphasis of orderConflict Theory challenges structuralfunctional emphasis neglected conflict tension and powerOveremphasis of social integrationvarious subjectcentered or micro theories challenge oversocialization of individual There were critical micro elelments missing from macro theory Metatheory the systematic study of sociological theoryStructureageny micro macroSociology is a science by different from the natural sciences in two key waysThe objects of study differ fundamentally do not exist independently of human action a product of actionevery object or term simultaneously identifies and is evaluativeDue to contested nature of objects and terms full theoretical agreement unlikely
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