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ENGL 100

Poetry: The use of first and second person pronouns the authors invokes sympathy towards abused workers and their experience of oppression. William Blake: “So your chimneys I sweep & in soot I sleep.” Woody Guthrie: “We died in your hills, we died in your deserts, We died in your valleys and died on your plains.” ”We” employs ethos to the reader through compassion. “Your” expresses the division of labour and power. “Soot” is a black powdery substance consisting of amorphous carbon, produced by incomplete burning of organic matter – can be compared to death of Mexicans. Fiction other than theme: Jonathan swift talks about the famine in Ireland by suggesting society eats babies: “I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed, is, at a year old, a most delicious nourishing and wholesome food.” Logos by accounting for American friend. Uses satire to criticizing the government and making fun of them. “So why be afraid of us, Mrs. Bush? You’re married to a scarier fellow. We bring you the tidings of great joy not only peace but property on earth.” Another element of fiction than theme: Heat Death of the Universe & Howl. Thesis: The style used in both texts is unconventional in the way they are structured. The use of chronological order in “Heat Death of the Universe” and the repetition in “Howl” form the unique basis in which they are composed, as well as highlighting the disorder in the protagonist’s lives. Argument 1: Heat Death “Sarah Boyle writes notes to herself all over the housel a mazed wild script larded with arrows, diagrams, pictures; graffiti on every available surface in a desperate/heroic attempt to index, record, bluff, invoke, order and placate.” Argument 2: Howl. “Who ate fire in paint hotels or drank turpentine in Paradise Alley, death, or purgatoried their torsos night after night…who chained themselves to subways for the endless ride from Battery to holy Bronx on Benzedrine…”. Poetry: Invigorating Effect of Money & The Chimney Sweeper. Thesis: Imagery is used to show the dual nature of two opposing realities. In The Chimney Sweeper, this is shown through the freedom of the afterlife, and in the Invigorating Effect of Money it is shown through the futility of life without money. Argument 1: The Chimney Sweeper. “And by came an Angel who had a bright key/ And he open’d the coffin & set them all free”. Argument: Invigorating Effect of Money. “They who think that money doesn’t count./ Fruitfulness turns into famine/ When the kindly stream gives out.” Paints a picture as to what life is like. The Oxford Dictionary: Othello and Shakespeare’s Sister. Thesis: As demonstrated through the character of Othello and Woolf’s protagonist, how one is viewed by society has a direct impact on their identity as an individual. Both characters are encompassed by the social perceptions of the character they embody. Argument 1: “My name, that was as fresh/ As Dian’s visage is now begrimed and black/ As mine own face.” Argument 2: “She could get no training in her craft. Could she even seek her dinner in a tavern or roam the streets at midnight? Yet her genius was for fiction and lusted to feed abundantly upon the lives of men and women in the study of their way.” Aristotle’s three categories for rhetoric: Ain’t I A Woman? & I Want a Wife. Thesis: Both utilized logos in a similar manner through the focus on women and the role they provide in different ways of life. Argument 1: “That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddle or gives me any best place! And ain’t I a woman?” Argument 2: “When I am through with school and have a job, I want my wife to quit working and remain at home so that my wife can more fully and completely take care of my wife’s duties. My god, who wouldn’t want a wife?” Implicit or Explicit desire to expose injustice: A Modest Proposal and The Yellow Wallpaper. Thesis: Injustice is represented in the two texts through the hierarchal division and patriarchal division in society and the ways in which it affects those who are on the disadvantaged side of it. Argument 1: “But my intention is very far from being confine to provide only for the children of professed beggars: it is of much greater extent, and shall take in the whole number of infants at a certain age, who are born of parents in effect as little able to support them, as those who demand charity in the streets.” Argument 2: “…I wish John would take me away from here!” Howl – Allen Ginsburg “I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness…” B. Context: very start of the poem -- introduction into the disorder of the beat generation. No meter, absence of structure, free verse. Free verse appropriate -- anti-mainstream, going against the traditional structure. C. Structure is like the way society refrains individuals and going with no structure shows him going against the society (beat generation). Repetition of “who” throughout -- poem is centered on something; provides the little grounding the poem has; re-setting with each new line. “Scholars of war” --people with an education. D. Shows the suffering of great minds -- connecting back to the whole. “Blake-light tragedy” -- allusion/reference to The Chimney Sweeper. “Expelled for crazy” -- constant them – being crazy = being enlightened, crazy is not conforming to the norms. Introduces his view of the generation as going against the tide, staggering in their madness. Staggering trying to get through the conformity of society, which causes suffering to their great minds. Thesis: Ginsburg demonstrates the internal and external struggles that the beat generation faces, through his explicit diction and use of allusion. The White House Has Disinvited the Poets – Julia Alvarez “No poetry until further notice.” B. Speaker is Alvarez, addressing Mrs. Bush (basically saying it’s foolish for her to be afraid of a group of poets when there are scarier things in the world, her husband being one of them). C. Silence plays a role, as Mrs. Bush is afraid of what these poets have to say (poetry allows you to speak up about things that are generally not spoken about) Alvarez addresses the fact that Mrs. Bush doesn’t want to hear any honesty, and therefore cancels the conference. There are bigger issues to address (the war) however she is concerned about the poets. Alvarez asks what they are being punished when they are the ones that are always silenced (99% vs. 1%) “Bearing poetry and not arms” -- puts the blame on Mrs. Bush. Cancelling it is an attack on the poets. D. Connects to the whole by
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