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ENGL 100 Study Guide - Litotes, Alliteration, Internal Rhyme


Department
English
Course Code
ENGL 100
Professor
Prof.

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ENGL100B - Exam Review
Literary Terms
Literary Term
Definition
Genre
A category of literary composition which may be determined by literary
technique, tone, content, or length
Symbol
An object, action, or idea that represents something other than itself, often of
a more abstract nature
Allegory
A literary work that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a
moral or political one (the work serves as an extended metaphor)
Allusion
A reference in a literary work to a person, place, or thing in history or another
work of literature
Pun
A form of word play which suggests two or more meanings by exploiting
multiple meaning of the words, or of similar sounding words, for an intended
humorous or rhetorical effect
Simile
A comparison using “like” or “as”
Apostrophe
A figure of speech in which the speaker addresses an object, concept, or
person (usually absent) that is unable to respond
Personification
Giving human characteristics to non-human entities
Elegy
A mournful, sorrowful poem, especially a funeral song or a lament for the
dead
Irony
(Types = verbal,
dramatic, cosmic)
When a person, situation, statement or circumstance is not as it would
actually seem, often times being the exact opposite
Sarcasm
The use of irony to mock or convey contempt
Voice
The individual writing style of an author, a combination of the usage of syntax,
diction, character development, tone, and dialogue within a given body of text
(the manner in which a story is told)
Speaker
The voice in the poem. The speaker may be the author or a character created
by the author.
Audience
The group of people who participate in/encounter a work of literature (the
readers)
Image/Imagery
Language that appeals to any sense of any combination of the senses
Motif
Any recurring element that has symbolic significance in a work of literature
Ode
A lyric poem in the form of an address to a particular subject, often elevated in
style or manner and written in varied or irregular meter
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Literary Term
Definition
Tone
The attitude a writer takes toward his or her subject, characters, and readers.
Tone is created through diction and details.
Setting
The time and place of an action in a literary work
Atmosphere
The tone, feeling, or overall emotion of a piece of writing
Anaphora
A rhetorical device that consists of repeating the sequence of words at the
beginnings of neighboring clauses, thereby giving them emphasis.
Onomatopoeia
Words whose sounds imitate/suggest the word’s meaning
Alliteration
The repetition of the INITIAL letter or sound in two or more closely associated
words of stressed syllables.
Assonance
The repetition of similar VOWEL sounds, usually close together, in a group of
words
Figures of speech
The use of a word or words diverging from its usual meaning (the unusual
application of words)
Metaphor: Tenor and
Vehicle
A figure of speech in which one thing is described in terms of another. The
tenor of a metaphor is the literal subject meaning, and the vehicle is that
which is used to describe it.
Metaphysical poetry:
Paradox, Conceit
Metaphysical poetry is characterized by the inventive use of conceits
(extravagant and farfetched metaphors and similes) and by speculation about
abstract topics such as love and religion. A metaphysical paradox is a highly
abstract and overly theoretical paradox (juxtaposition of incongruous ideas)
Hyperbole
(Overstatement)
The use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device/figure of speech
Litotes
(Understatement)
The use of an understatement as a rhetorical device/figure of speech
Closed Form
Follows a fixed set of rules, rhyme schemes, meters, syllable count etc. (Like
a sonnet)
Open Form
Does not strictly adhere to a metrical pattern/rhyme scheme
Satire: Horatian
(gentle) and
Juvenalian (harsh)
A kind of writing that ridicules or contempts the weakness and wrongdoings of
individuals, groups, institutions, or humanity in general (Horatian is satire with
an amused/tolerant tone, and Juvenalian is satire with a bitter/ironic tone)
Satiric Norm
Ridiculing a the cherished, prevailing way of life in a society
Parallelism
The use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar or complementary
in structure or in meaning
Chiasmus
A figure of speech in which two or more clauses are related to each other
through a reversal of structure in order to make a larger point
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