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ENGL100 - Winter Semester Literary Terms.pdf

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ENGL 100

ENGL100B - Exam Review Literary Terms Literary Term Definition Genre A category of literary composition which may be determined by literary technique, tone, content, or length Symbol An object, action, or idea that represents something other than itself, often of a more abstract nature Allegory A literary work that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one (the work serves as an extended metaphor) Allusion A reference in a literary work to a person, place, or thing in history or another work of literature Pun A form of word play which suggests two or more meanings by exploiting multiple meaning of the words, or of similar sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect Simile A comparison using “like” or “as” Apostrophe A figure of speech in which the speaker addresses an object, concept, or person (usually absent) that is unable to respond Personification Giving human characteristics to non-human entities Elegy A mournful, sorrowful poem, especially a funeral song or a lament for the dead Irony When a person, situation, statement or circumstance is not as it would (Types = verbal, actually seem, often times being the exact opposite dramatic, cosmic) Sarcasm The use of irony to mock or convey contempt Voice The individual writing style of an author, a combination of the usage of syntax, diction, character development, tone, and dialogue within a given body of text (the manner in which a story is told) Speaker The voice in the poem. The speaker may be the author or a character created by the author. Audience The group of people who participate in/encounter a work of literature (the readers) Image/Imagery Language that appeals to any sense of any combination of the senses Motif Any recurring element that has symbolic significance in a work of literature Ode A lyric poem in the form of an address to a particular subject, often elevated in style or manner and written in varied or irregular meter Literary Term Definition Tone The attitude a writer takes toward his or her subject, characters, and readers. Tone is created through diction and details. Setting The time and place of an action in a literary work Atmosphere The tone, feeling, or overall emotion of a piece of writing Anaphora A rhetorical device that consists of repeating the sequence of words at the beginnings of neighboring clauses, thereby giving them emphasis. Onomatopoeia Words whose sounds imitate/suggest the word’s meaning Alliteration The repetition of the INITIAL letter or sound in two or more closely associated words of stressed syllables. Assonance The repetition of similar VOWEL sounds, usually close together, in a group of words Figures of speech The use of a word or words diverging from its usual meaning (the unusual application of words) Metaphor: Tenor and A figure of speech in which one thing is described in terms of another. The Vehicle tenor of a metaphor is the literal subject meaning, and the vehicle is that which is used to describe it. Metaphysical poetry: Metaphysical poetry is characterized by the inventive use of conceits Paradox, Conceit (extravagant and farfetched metaphors and similes) and by speculation about abstract topics such as love and religion. A metaphysical paradox is a highly abstract and overly theoretical paradox (juxtaposition of incongruous ideas) Hyperbole The use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device/figure of speech (Overstatement) Litotes The use of an understatement as a rhetorical device/figure of speech (Understatement) Closed Form Follows a fixed set of rules, rhyme schemes, meters, syllable count etc. (Like a sonnet) Open Form Does not strictly adhere to a metrical pattern/rhyme scheme Satire: Horatian A kind of writing that ridicules or contempts the weakness and wrongdoings of (gentle) and individuals, groups, institutions, or humanity in general (Horatian is satire with Juvenalian (harsh) an amused/tolerant tone, and Juvenalian is satire with a bitter/ironic tone) Satiric Norm Ridiculing a the cherished, prevailing way of life in a society Parallelism The use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar or complementary in structure or in meaning Chiasmus A figure of speech in which two or more clauses are related to each other through a reversal of structure in order to make a larger point Literary Term Definition Antithesis When two opposites are introduced in the same sentence for contrasting effect Zeugma A figure of speech in which a word applies to multiples parts of the sentance Petrarchan (Italian) A 14 line poem written in iambic pentameter and divided into two stanzas: the Sonnet octave and the sestet (eight line opener which poses a problem, six line closer which comments on the problem proposed in the octave) Shakespearean A 14 line poem consisting of three quatrains and a concluding couplet in (English) S
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