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Engl Winter Exam Notes.rtf

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ENGL 100
Christopher J Fanning

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English Winter Term Notes 2Poetry • • William Wordsworth “I wandered lonely as a cloud” (p351) • o Recollection of a spontaneous experience • o Start as a passive self sensing external stimulation • o Moves into a transformation to an active perceiver • o Some sort of secular communion with nature taking place (host) • o Outlines how the poets mind experiences a visual stimulus • o Analytic • • William Black “The Sick Rose” (p38) • o Genre: gives us a set of expectations • o Allegorizing: Attributing the words of a poem not with what they literally say but with something else of meaning • ♣ Flower being associated with human life • o Sexual content • o Organic • • Margret Atwood “You fit into me” (p18) • o Sexual content • o Bringing in a set of expectations and destroying those expectations in a shocking way • • Donald Hall “Independence day letter” • o Selection of detail, degree of repetition, and revelation at the end reveals that this piece of literature is a poem, as well as the composition • o Alienated feel in the words of the poem • o Dead women’s used car lot • • Voice, Tone, and Irony • • Irony, is when the reader perceives discrepancies in writing through juxtapositions between expectation and actuality; what ought to be as opposed to what is. • • Verbal Irony is when one thing is said but it means something else (example: sarcasm) • • Structural Irony occurs when the reader does not receive the entire story, through an unreliable narrator • • Dramatic Irony happens when the audience knows more than the characters • • Cosmic Irony is a discrepancy between a characters sense of reality and actual reality • • Theodore Roethke, “My Papa’s Waltz” • Not just told from the perspective of a naïve child, it is layered with the voice of the grown up sons perspective; a darker perspective than that of his view as a child • Poem of address, using words such as you and your to make a connection with the father • Mournful feel in the tone • Juxtaposition of the fun and the danger, the presence and the absence; these juxtapositions create irony • • Sharon Olds, “Rite of Passage” • Juxtaposition between boys and men, an opposition as well as a likeness; creates irony; men in first grade • Commentary on adult life while watching children play; the children are naïve and don’t know what they are talking about while adults do and say similar things, showing the foolishness of adults • Juxtapositions between mothers experience and child’s innocence • • William Blake, “The Chimney Sweeper” from Songs of Innocence • Innocent child speaking believing what he is told; he speaks dark truths while holding on to the empty words that the adults tell him; “If you do your duty you’ll come to no harm” • *Hears the promise instead of the threat; promise that they will not come to harm instead of threat of harm if they do not do their work • Adults use propaganda to play on the innocence of the child, he does not know that the adults don’t mean the things they say while the reader can see through their words • Directed to the reader; “your chimneys I sweep” • • William Blake, “The Chimney Sweeper” from Songs of Experience • The experienced chimney sweeper; he understands what is going on and sees through the hoax adults pull on him • On the verge of sarcasm • This child knows what is going on; rather than the innocent child believing and us being aware that he is wrong, the child understands his situation • Cosmic irony, his aspirations and what ought to be does not match up with reality; creates a very dark poem • • *Juxtaposition in all of these poems between the experience of adults against the innocence and children • • Double Voice indicates the two voices in a narrative of the character and the author. Irony occurs in the gap between those two voices. • • Tone while there is no physical interaction between writer and reader to give us cues such as body language, stresses and facial expressions, the reader can focus on language use as well as outward to allusions, similes, metaphors and so on in order to understand the tone. • • Imagery in Poetry • • Anything that provokes thought creates pleasure in poetry • Substitution through simile and metaphor often creates imagery • • Imagery: The representation of experience through vivid and detailed experience, usually visually but can be applied to any sensual element • • Ezra Pound “In a Station of the Metro” • Juxtaposition of silent, organic stillness of nature with the busy, industrialism of the metro station • Pound wanted to convey the instantaneous experience he felt • Emotional charge created from the visual imagery created in this poem • Pound stated that an “image is real because we know it directly” • Intensification • The connection of multiple senses and feelings make imagery impactful • • Gerard Manley Hopkins “Pied Beauty” (P162) • Pied: Having two or more different colors (multicolored); explicitly sharp contrast • In relation to god; if the world is god why is it both dark and light? Shouldn’t there be a unity? • The contrast of pied relates to the contrast of god in the world • Multiple words highlighting contrast: dappled, brinded, pied, etc.. • Imagery used to reveal divinity within everyday objects; chestnut falling from a tree splits open to reveal what is inside; revealing god • Fire coal splits revealing embers • Hopkins had an intense interest in the idea of finding god in the world • Trades, different jobs people do; gear and tackle and trim, the equipment used in jobs; brings across the idea of the divinity within man; just as the chestnuts are doing a certain job people are also using their talents to help the world • Movement and activity throughout the poem; no stillness • Permanence of god is highlighted in the last line: all the change in the poem is connected by the presence of god: the only permanent aspect • Hopkins wanted the reader to notice the wonder in everyday things • *Content is in the images themselves • • John Keats “ To Autumn” (P188) • Autumn is personified; someone you can speak to or address • Poem takes us visually through the landscape • Motion through the landscape; changing perspective visually and sonically • We can hear the cider press, the songs of spring, the swallows twittering, etc.. • Sounds become more and more remote; from cider press to humming of insects or twittering of distant birds • Capturing the moment of perfect ripeness before the brink of death • Ripeness to the core • Makes the reader acknowledge and accept mortality and inevitable death • Through its imagery, this poem has brought us to the conclusion that death is inevitable? • • Sound and Rhythm • • Onomatopoeia • Meow for the sound a cat makes; clear approximation; not realistic • *Convention • • A writer conveys a subject through the specific sounds used • • Alliteration: matching of consonant sounds • • Assonance: matching of vowel sounds • • Rhyme: matching of combinations of vowels and consonants • • Rhyme: Rhyme’s are not merely ornamental but they mean something; the very words that are rhymes create a connection or are brought together; rhyming words increase stress so it can signal importance; rhymes can create tone through the sounds and words chosen. • Varieties • Exact rhyme: sun/fun • Slant (near, off, or imperfect) rhyme: sun/moon • Consonance: sun/sin • Eye rhyme: laughter/daughter • Placement • End rhyme vs. internal rhyme • Masculine rhyme: sun/fun • Feminine rhyme: sunny/funny • • Wordsworth “A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal” • Alliteration, assonance and rhyme seen through poem • In her death, the girl has become a “thing”; a part of the world • Sorry consolation for her becoming inanimate with rocks, stones and trees • Constant “ee” sound; euphony of matching sounds; continuity • Second stanza slows down with the use of strong “o’s” juxtaposed against the “e” sounds in combination with the harsh “n’s” and “r’s” • • Hopkins “God’s Grandeur” (P161) • Internal rhyme • Wearing shoes = we are no longer in touch with the earth • Sunset implies a sunrise • Beauty of the world as a manifestation of god • Image of sunrise is transformed into a bird like image of the holy ghost • Double meaning of ‘bent’; is the world bent/broken; or is he referring to being bent in prayer • Even though we are broken we can pray • Manipulation of sound stands out in order to reinforce the thought • “it will flame out…” image of refraction of light and the idea that it is unpredictable; you never know when your going to bump into the grandeur of god again • • Yaets “Leda and the Swan” (P370) • Linked with one of Zeus’s escapades where he becomes a swan and meets a women named Leda • Has to do with Helen of troy and the Trojan war • Asks metaphysical questions about violence • Rhyme scheme shows the pattern of repetition • Failure of rhyme at the very conclusion, linking to the strange ambivalence of the event that is happening in this poem • The question that remains unanswered in the last two lines; connected to the nature of power and violence and whether or not it is connected to something higher • • • Closed form: any poem that uses any set out metrical pattern or rhyme scheme • Can be an original rhyme scheme or metric pattern • Does not have to be pre established • Author knows the rules and creates and finds opportunity within the given form • Twelve bar blues poem: two identical lines followed by one turn around line • Satisfies in delivery • Lyric derived from lyre; an instrument that often went along with poetry; means something melodic, non narrative, non dramatic poem; its subject matter is often private, personal and subjective • Sonnets: form that originates in one of the primary universal experiences, love • • Open form: any poem that does not adhere to these rules • • The modern personal essay • • Comes from the word essai; which means trial or attempt • A process • Not the conclusion • Every kind of essay attempts something • The personal essay has a recursive / ongoing quality • Subject to change • • Michel Seignever De Montaigne • Wrote essays • Kept making revisions • 600 additions •
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