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Department
English
Course
ENGL 100
Professor
Christopher J Fanning
Semester
Winter

Description
ENGL 100-003 Literary Terms for Winter Term Genre Definition: literary form, kind/type of literature with a distinguished character that can be classified. Work: Alexander Pope‘s ―Rape of the Lock‖ Example: Formal verse satire, address a certain point/folly of the human condition. This poem shows this through the mocking of trivial events and vanity of high society and the irrelevancy of social decorum. Symbol Definition: physical/visual object that emphasizes an idea/theme, contain a particular meaning. Work: Langston Hughes‘ ―Mother to Son‖ Example: stair is a symbol of life‘s journey; sometimes hard and painful covered in tacks and splinters. It isn‘t crystal and perfect. Sometimes we must go without, ‗bare.‘ We must persevere, ―I‘se been climbing on.‖ Allegory Definition: symbolic narrative, applies symbolism in a fixed structure that is deployed in a consistent manner. The journey is a typical form of allegory. Work: Langston Hughe‘s ―Mother to Son‖ Example: stair is a symbol of life‘s journey; sometimes hard and painful covered in tacks and splinters. It isn‘t crystal and perfect. Sometimes we must go without, ‗bare.‘ We must persevere, ―I‘se been climbing on.‖ Allusion Definition: passing reference within one work to another work or historical event/person, not explained in order to fluff the reader‘s sense of pride in understanding the reference. Work: Montaigne‘s ―Of Books‖ Example: mockery of Cicero, inclusion of well-known phrases and figures (Seneca, Plutarch, Epicurus, Caesar, etc.) Pun Definition: Figure of thought that plays on words that have the same sound, homonyms, or closely similar words resulting in a humorous/witty double-meaning. Work: Donne‘s ―Valediction: Forbidden Mourning‖ Example: ―It leans and harkens after it/ and grows erect, as that comes home‖ Simile Definition: drawing a comparison between two different things using ―like‖ or ―as‖ Work: Donne‘s ―Valediction: Forbidden Mourning‖ Example: ―As stiff twin compasses are two‖ Apostrophe Definition: address to a dead person/ absent person/ inanimate object/ abstract concept. Attempt to elevate the style and give emotional intensity to the address. Work: Donald Hall‘s ―Independence Day Letter‖ Example: ―Twelve weeks after the Tuesday we learned that you were sick‖ ―tenth Wednesday after the Wednesday we buried you.‖ Personification Definition: Figure of thought in which an abstract concept/ inanimate object is treated as though alive or had human attributes. Work: Keat‘s ―To Autumn‖ Example: ―Thee sitting careless on a granary floor‖ poem is also addressed to Autumn as a person; she conspires, has soft hair, she sleeps, she watches. Elegy Definition: A poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead. Work: Donald Hall‘s ―Independence Day Letter‖ Example: reflection on his life without his wife, Irony Definition: Figure of thought that depends on presenting a deliberate contrast between two levels of meaning.  Verbal: meaning is complete opposite of one that is explicitly stated. o Work: William Blake‘s ―The Chimney Sweep (Innocence)‖ o Example: ―So if all do their duty, they need not fear harm‖ promise or threat?  Structural: implication of alternate/reversed meaning that pervades a work; naïve protagonist, unreliable narrator. o Work: Thomas Roethke‘s ―My Papa Waltz‖ o Example: naïve narrator  Dramatic: audience knows something that the character(s) do not. o Work: William Blake‘s ―The Chimney Sweep (Innocence)‖ o Example: Innocent optimism of the child vs. the harsh reality of life as a chimney sweep, the boy believes an angel will save him but we know there is only death for him.  Cosmic: implies worldview in which characters are led to embrace false hopes of aid/success only to be defeated by external forces like Gods/fate. o Work: o Example: Sarcasm Definition: Form of irony, taunting use of apparent approval/praise for actual disapproval/dispraise; verbal irony. Work: Example: Voice Definition: Poet‘s attitude, not the speaker‘s. The values and views applied to the speaker/ poem, the presence of the author. Work: Roethke‘s ―My Papa‘s Waltz‖ Example: the speaker does not realize the presence/ absence paradox of his father‘s behaviour but the author realizes this parental neglect, ―still clinging‖ clinging is longing Speaker Definition: the one who presents the words/ ideas/ concepts to the listener that is different than the real author/ reader. Work: Roethke‘s ―My Papa‘s Waltz‖ Example: Speaker= young boy ―make a small boy busy/ But I hung on‖ Audience Definition: the listener as well as the reader Work: Roethke‘s ―My Papa‘s Waltz‖ Example: Listener= father ―your breath,‖ Speaker= young boy ―make a small boy busy/ But I hung on‖ Image/Imagery Definition: A detailed/visual description of an object or scene, concrete form. References to sensory perception that evokes feeling/thought, abstract form. Work: Keat‘s ―To Autumn‖ Example: ―to bend with apples the mossed cottage-tree‖ Motif Definition: repetitive/ recurrent imagery that appeals to certain feelings and emotions. Work: Woolf‘s ―Street Haunting‖ Example: water motif ―mind floats‖ ―little islands of light‖ Ode Definition: a lyric poem in the form of an address to a particular subject, often elevated in style or manner and written in varied or irregular meter. Work: Example: Tone Definition: the poet/ author‘s attitude towards the values presented, use language and devices to convey it. Work: Lamb‘s ―A Chapter on Ears‖ Example: uses the persona of Elia to demonstrate his opinions on the classist society in which he lived, Juvenalian Setting Definition: the time and place in which events unfold within a work. Time may be historical, time of year, time of day/night. Work: Keat‘s ―To Autumn‖ Example: vivid description of a farm/ country side, travel through it from dawn to dusk Atmosphere Definition: used to convey tone, foreshadows expectations Work: Wordsworth‘s ―I Wandered Lonely as A Cloud‖ Example: airy atmosphere introduced in the first stanza threads its way through the second where it is challenged by the pensive mood until the memory of the blissful dancing flowers. Anaphora Definition: repetition at the beginning of a sentence/ line/ stanza, create emphasis. Work: Langston Hughes‘ ―Mother to Son‖ Example: repetition of ―and‖ at the start of most lines Onomatopoeia Definition: make an approximation of the sound Work: Example: Alliteration Definition: Repetition of sounds in nearby words or stressed syllables in poetry and prose. Usually applies to consonants that appear at a word‘s beginning. Work: Blake‘s ―The Chimney Sweeper‖ Example: ―Your chimneys I sweep and in soot I sleep‖ Assonance Definition: Repetition of identical/similar vowel sounds in nearby words or stressed syllables in poetry and prose. Work: Frost‘s ―Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening‖ Example: ―Whose woods‖ Figures of Speech Definition: shifting patterns and applications of language that deviate from the syntactical norm, also includes tropes and the change in semantics through apostrophe, rhetorical devices, anaphora, antithesis, and chiasmus. Work: John Donne‘s ―A Valediction: Forbidden Mourning‖ Example: The conceit about the two lovers being as a compass. Metaphor Definition: Figure of speech in which one thing is described in terms of another; implicit, asserts one thing is another; transfer qualities of the vehicle to the tenor.  Tenor: literal meaning, object or idea meant; thing meant.  Vehicle: material manifestation of the idea, analogy or idea used to convey the tenor, thing said. Work: Slyvia Plath‘s ―Metaphors‖ Example: tenor is a pregnant woman, ―watermelon strolling on two tendrils‖ pregnant waddle Metaphysical Poetry Definition: characterized by the inventive use of conceits, and by speculation about topics such as love or religion. Work: Donne‘s ―Valediction: Forbidden Mourning‖ Example: two souls joined together like a compass, elaborate metaphor of his love. Hyperbole Definition: overstatement, greatly exaggerated, implies intensity of speaker‘s feelings/convictions by putting them in absolute terms. Work: Marvell‘s ―To His Coy Mistress‖ Example: ―Love you ten years before the flood,/ and should, if you please, refuse/ Till the conversion of the Jews.‖ Litotes Definition: negating the opposite, understatement Work: Austen‘s Pride and Prejudice Example: ―‗About the Court, such instances of elegant breeding are not uncommon.‘‖ CH 29 Closed Form Definition: poem that uses a set form, meter, rhythm, rhyme scheme and strictly adheres to said pattern. Work: Shakespeare‘s ―Sonnet 73‖ Example: Satire Definition: mode, transcends genre, employs irony to convey a point. Addresses a certain point/ folly of the human condition.  Horatian: tolerant and urbane, indulgently mocking faults with
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