film 240 week 7 - Television.pdf

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Queen's University
Film and Media
FILM 240
Sidney Eve Matrix

Television Lecture Thursday, October 25, 2012 9:28 PM INTRODUCTION TV at Home 50% of households have three or more televisions in their households 7/10 master bedrooms has a TV 1/4 kids have a TV in their room Global TV sales were flat in 2011, and down 4% in 2012 • We replace our televisions every 5-7 years, and after just purchasing flatscreen TVs, the consumer market was not particularly excited about plasma or 3-D television sets. • Powered on for approximately 8 hours each day • Large wave of television purchases expected for the next year (Introduction of connected TV) Audience Demographics Average Canadians watch 4.3 hours of television (2012), which hasn't changed much since the demographic from 2006 (4.2 hours) Age 2-5 watch approximately 32 hours/week • Television becomes an electronic babysitter • Pediatric researchers have determined that there is no known positive effect of children watching television Age 6-8 - 28 hours/week Teens watch 4 hours/day (2 hours added each day for console time) • These statistics result in moral panic • Concern can stimulate from - Not enough exercise - Impressionable demographic (negative body image, taboo situations that are considered more realistic than they actually are) - Not being imaginative - Lowers attention span - Teenagers programming has shifted from a focus on friends to one on fame Gen Y watches 30% less TV than teenagers and adults, but 30% more web videos. Television Pedagogies, sexual and cultural literacies TV affects public opinion: the way we see the world/each other • First a consumer, secondly a citizen/person • TV is instructional, inspirational, and influential Pedagogy → the science of learning We are transmitted folklore about intimacy and gender • Sexual literacies - Behavioural outlines about masculinity, femininity, relationships, identities, etc. • The more hours you watch TV, the more you accept stereotypical values about identity factors - Cutivation effect → The types of programs you engage with effect your perception of the world Before 2007, teenage television focused on friendships After 2007, fame and celebrities Electronic Hearth, TV as Sociocultural Glue Gathering around TV or TV content in order to make sense of major cultural happenings (can be positive or negative) • Canadian Olympics Electronic Hearth, TV as Sociocultural Glue Gathering around TV or TV content in order to make sense of major cultural happenings (can be positive or negative) • Canadian Olympics • 9-11 • Felix jumped from space • Superbowl Generated large audiences • Elections/debates • Royal wedding Event programming and cultural unifications produces moments where everyone is included. • Television is a technology of social adhesion. • Everyone is on the same channel, which stimulates the ability to share; we have an affinity with each other • Brings us together to make sense of things as a group • Promotes social integration and an affinity of social cohesion NETWORK ERA (1950-70) 90% of homes had a television by 1960s, and we were all watching the same 3-5 channels, consuming the same types of shows • Massive audiences tuned into the same content at the same time Quiz/Game Shows Scandals Sponsorship Scandals: The reason why game shows moved towards network-sponsors rather than single sponsors Revlon sponsored $64,000 question • Started to fix the game show outcomes to increase the melodrama • Reason why game shows disappeared from network television for a while Why we watch Game Shows: • Fascination with the idea of sudden wealth • Identify with contestants; an empathetic bond with their luck or unlucky-ness • We pleasure ourselves in being an "arm chair" competitor • Generational specific Network programming: Daytime television, talk shows, magazine shows First talk-show was the Today show, which was modeled after Life magazine. • Thematic segments mimicked the style of magazines • Each segment attracts specific sponsors It's difficult to break into the Talk Show business Reality TV: Voting Shows, Closed Expert Systems Driven by our intense emotional identification with characters and their personalities • Characters must be charismatic • Transparent personalities • Interactive spectatorship through voting and conversation stimulation - Dance shows were intended to bring young people away from the web and back to the television Voting Shows are designed to draw our generation from the Internet back to the television through active interaction Closed Expert Systems → Some reality television chooses the winner by a panel of experts • The indetermacy of the contest appeals to an audience - we want to see who wins • The appeal of ordinary folks achieving superstar status also attracts an audience [ex] the Apprentice, Dragon's Den Comedy: Sketch situation, domestic Comedy: Sketch situation, domestic Sketch Comedy → variety shows that are composed of small skits • Micromoments • [ex] SNL Situation Comedy → Relatively small cast of characters that find themselves in an increasingly complicated situation each episode which is resolved by the end of the program • "Sit-com" • Main character is generally the one who is trying to resolve the conflict • Stress = funny • Filled with slapstick humor and recycled stunts that have previously appeared to audiences (same mistakes are repeated season to season) [ex] New Girl Domestic Comedy → A dysfunctional family (larger cast) that focuses on relationships with each other • Find themselves in a situation • Must be resolved by working together/relying on each other to overcome their differences • Characters are more deeply developed [ex] Modern Family, Family Guy Most contemporary comedies combine elements of each kind of comedy Drama: Episodic, Chapter, Serial Episode drama combines elements of chapter and serial drama • Both daytime and evening television • Stable cast of characters and stable set • Localized • Deep investment in characters • Same production crews throughout a season Chapter Shows → Relatively large casts that face a complicated situation which is revolved by the end of the episode • An episode can stand alone - self contained • Can be shuffled and shown in any order - strip programming • Some plotlines do extend over episodes [ex] Hawaii Five-O Serial Drama → Open ended plots that are weaved throughout each show • Need to be consistently followed • Extremely popular [ex] Soap Operas Network decline, rise of cable and satellite TV (demassification) Choice from specialty cable channels • Moved the channel ecosystem from channel scarcity to choice abundance • Made it difficult to find things: channel overload • From broadcasting to narrowcasting: demassification of TV - Niche audiences - Specialty programs TV guide helps audiences find content through their iPhone app: you create a Watchlist that is synced with social media platforms • Preferences of a Watchlist can be sold to advertisers for demographic information about program choices • Advertisers love audience segmentation - you can target a particular audience for product integration Cable TV bundles are important to discovery of new channels Cable TV bundles are important to discovery of new channels • If we had a choice, we'd prefer to unbundle media - democratizing effect • If this was the case, advertisers know that we would purchase a lot less channels • Cross-border signal piracy: Canadians are more interested in American satellite signals - Will lead to the end of Canadian teelevision Genre Protections, Canadian-Content Rules Canadian Content Regulations: cultural protectionism: rules that protect the Canadian television industry Genre protections: we can't have too much content that is directly competing with each other - channels must distinguish themselves from channels that are already on the market Can-Con: Canadian Content • There can only be a certain percentage of content available during the day or at night • Forcing Canadian content on the air - 60% of Canadian content during the evenings Simulcasting and Simultaneous Substitution (ads) • Force simultaneous substitution when programs are being broadcasted at the same time across the borders - American commercials must be removed CRTC shows that 90% of Canadians would maintain regulations that protect Canadian television industry ECONOMICS OF TELEVISION TV Advertising No ads = no program 60% of 12-24 demographic make puchase decisions based on television programs through advertisements and integrated advertising Television advertising has the greatest impact on purchase decisions • TV is neither broken nor breaking (Deloitte) We have left the TV to watch programs online, but are brought back for examples of event programming (the superbowl, award shows) Content and advertising work together • The superbowl is watched for the event and the commercials - awesome advertising is content • We share commercials that are charismatic • Ad content is shareworthy The most popular advertising strategy is humor Impact of Social buzz on advertising and ratings Contests create extended engagement before and after the event • 33% engage with content after it is shown More incentives to engage through social media during programs • Social buzz is an important piece of television production • 17% start watching a show because of social buzz • 27% avoid social media to avoid spoilers Types of shows we're most likely to post about while watching: 1) Comedy 2) Reality TV 3) Sports "The active audience is the best thing that has ever happened to advertising" • Frictionless sharing that shows friends what you're watching • Friend networks motivate each other to watch television programs - Virtual togetherness mediates friendships • Peer to Peer recommendations increase engagement - Discover content through our friends What we are watching is more visible to the outside world through recommendation engines. New transparencies are achieved and allow us to get to know each other through media choices. Branded Entertainment: Product Integration and (pre-)program sponsorship Sponsors who give you money before production in order to fund • Product integration or dynamic advertising opportunities Branded Entertainment → products that shows always turn to • Amazing Race and ford • X-factor and Pepsi Whole shows can be built around it, or can be central to the show Deficit Financing You license the ability to play your show for less money than what production cost • Hope that it catches on and you get renewed Syndication and Stripped Programming, Fringe Time Original and off-network: produced for multiple networks Off-network Reruns of old shows are purchased because we love them Fringe time: early (immediately before prime time shows or late after local late news or late-night talk shows • Hoping we will stay on channel Media Franchises and Format Market, Templates Shows that are cookie cutters that are rolled out for different markets • Templates that can be sold (Canadian idol, American idol) • Production tips for casting, product tie-in, musical choices • Proven to be successful; safe bet - you can't lose • 200 countries show CSI Miami • 20 years of Law and Order • Sesame street franchise has universal appeal • Winning formulas: proven success, we know what to expect NEW TV TECHNOLOGIES Consumer expectations: any media at any time on any screen • We want it to be easy for us to customize our own media mix - Media must be segmented End of Prime Time TV: Unbundling, Screenshifting, Timeshifting, Placeshifting From appointment consumption to TV on-demand • Whatever time we are available to consume is when we will watch television - The impact of timeshifting technology - 10PM used to be considered prime time • TiVo was introduced in 1999 - revolutionized how we watch TV - 60% same day playback - Lowest DVR playback: sports events - Lowest DVR playback: sports events - Highest DVR playback: chapter drama - 30% playback audience • Placeshifted viewing on mobile TV - ability to watch TV on the move Consumers want TV on their terms, which leads to the television-internet displacement effect • 40% adult web users watch TV online • Disaggregation of television programs from TV stations to new platforms such as iTunes, YouTube, Netflix, and Facebook Connected TVs (iTV) and OTT (over-the-top) TV Over the top television: Internet-based streaming programs and service • If broadcasters don't make an effort to hold their audience, they will lose it - Half of cable subscribers also use OTT - Half of OTT users don't have cable • Cord cutters by corhort - cancel cable TV service and keep Internet connection - Online GenY: 64% - Online GenX: 41% People went to from broad and narrow, and we think they will continue to go that way - spending more time in the niches - because now the distribution landscape allows for more narrowness • This is why people are creating their own YouTube channels Traditionally, TV is a lean-back technology Currently, SmartTVs provide new modes of engagement and promote a lean-forward technology • Almost 4 in 10 households will have on by 2012's conclusion Apps and Widgets • 75% want interactive TV • Surveys sponsored by Samsung, SONY, LG, Panasonic, etc Tcommerce (click-thru Purchasing) • Apps purchased through your TV • Models available online - When you watch the Hills on MTV, you can opt for the shopisode version, which splits the screen and allows you to click-through purchase products onscreen • Like, want, click, share, buy process Television Readings Wednesday, December 05, 2012 6:00 PM Broadcasting Networks Today Pg. 145-146 In its early days, network television borrowed many of their programming and business ideas from the radio, including old scripts, program ideas, sponsors, and prime-time evening audience. • Many popular radio shows migrated to the television screen after years of being successful on the air The television officially replaced the radio as our most popularmass medium, and with its mainstream adoption also came arguments about its social and cultural impact on society • Many people argued that television had a negative impact on children and young people, through increased visual exposure to sex and violence • Criticized for influencing the youth intake of sugary cereals and for enabling/sustaining the two-party political division (through separate types of advertising) Television also has the power to bring together mass audiences and help society collectively piece together fragments of information about current events. • The civil rights violations in the South, the Kennedy and King assassinations, the political turmoil of Watergate in the 1970s, the terrorist attacks, Hurricane Katrina, and the uprisings surrounding the Arab Spring movements are all examples of global events that were brought to the attention of many people through television, which has become a central touchstone in our lives Today, television is attempting to reinvent itself in order to remain relevant in our converged and mobile world. • Today's generations are accustomed to adapting television technologies to fit third- and fourth-screen innovations (movies are considered the first screen, while traditionalTV is the second screen). - Young people prefer to watch videos online, on their phones, or on their iPods, devices which are capable of allowing individuals to watch programming at a time that is convenient for them, not just when it first airs. Controlling Content Pg. 149-151 As television established an identity distinct from the influence of radio (through a change in sponsorship structure and a major scandal),it constituted popularity among the majority of U.S. citizens. By the 1960s, more than 90% of U.S. households owned at least one television set. PROGRAM FORMAT CHANGES INHIBIT SPONSORSHIP • Many early TV programs were supported by a single sponsor,most of whom insisted that their name be included in the program title [ex] Buick Circus Hour, Colgate Comedy Hour - Single sponsors made it easy for advertisers to influence the program's content - The cost of sponsoring a 60-minute television show rose from $35000 to $90000 throughout the course of the 1950s, a price that became difficult for sponsorsto handle. • In 1953, David Sarnoff (then head of RCA/NBC)appointed Sylvester "Pat" Weaver as president of NBC. Weaver increased program length from fifteen minutes to thirty minutes or longer, which substantially rose program costs for advertisers and discouraged some from sponsoring programs. The addition of two new types of programs helped the network regain control over content 1) The magazine program → featured multiple segments (news, talk, comedy, and music) in a fashion that was similar to the content variety found in a general interest or newsmagazine of the day • The introduction of the Today show (a three-hourmorning talk-news program) and the Tonight show (90 minutes) provided daily production costs that were too high for a single sponsor, a dilemma which NBC solved by offering spot ads within the shows: advertisers paid the network for 30 or 60 second time slots • The network, not the sponsor,now produced and owned the programs or bought them from independent • The network, not the sponsor,now produced and owned the programs or bought them from independent producers. 2) TV spectacular → more commonly recognized nowadays as a "television special" • Broadcastingcompanies would purchase the rights to special programs like Broadway productions or music- variety shows hosted by famous singers THE RISE AND FALL OF QUIZ SHOWS • Quiz shows emerged to television in 1955 with Revlon's $64,000 Question. - The show aired during prime time hours (between 8 and 11), attracting large audiences and the highest advertising rates - Revlon's cosmetic sales skyrocketed from $1.2 million before sponsorship to nearly $10 million by 1959 • Quiz shows are cheap to produce, with inexpensive sets and mostly nonactors as guests • Offer the sponsorthe opportunity to have its name displayed on set throughout the program • Many early versions of quiz shows were rigged, with sponsors or producers giving key contestants answers in order to get rid of guests who were not appealing and to heighten the drama - Prime-time quiz shows ended following an investigation in which Twenty-One contestant and big winner Charles Van Doren admitted to cheating. • Game shows made a comeback eventually through the success of independent programs like Jeopardy, Wheel of Fortune, and ABC's Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, which was the number one program in 1999-2000. THE QUIZ SHOW SCAANDAL HURTS THE PROMISE OF TV • Sponsorswere no longer able to have a role in creating TV content • The quiz show scandals were the first indication that the public couldn't necessarily trust TV images, which could obviously be manipulated. • Established television as a low culture medium that could no longer appeal to intellectuals Development of Cable Pg. 151 The late 1950s - end of the 1970s is typically regarded as the network era, in which the Big Three broadcasting networks (CBS, NBC, and ABC) dictated virtually every trend in programming and collectively accounted for more that 95% of all prime-time TV viewing • Broadcastingaudiences have since decreased because of cable television systems and the introduction of VCRs/DVD players CABLE THREATENS BROADCASTING Pg. 153 • The percentage of U.S. homes receiving cable grew from 14 to 70 between 1977 and 1999, with basic cable channelscapturing a larger prime-time audience than broadcast networks by the end of the millennium. • As direct broadcast satellite services (DBS) infiltrated the market, and digital signals/better online options emerged, customers began moving away from cable subscriptions, and cable penetration dropped to 45% • Cable improved signal perception and provided specialized programming for diverse and fragmented groups (narrowcasting) - Advertisers could target audiences based on the niched viewers that certain channelsand programs attracted • Cable makes television more accessible Cable Services Pg. 153-155 Cable consumers choose programming from a two-tiered structure: Basic cable services and premium cable services. BASIC CABLE SERVICES → A tier of channels composed of local broadcast signals, non-broadcast access channels (for local government, education, and general public use), a few regional PBS stations, and a variety of cable channels downlinked from education,and generalpublic use), a few regional PBS stations, and a variety of cable channels downlinked from communication satellites. • A cable company will pay for a satellite-delivered service, a fee that is passed on to the consumer as part of their basic monthly cable rate • Cable system capacities continue to increase as a result of high-bandwidth fiber-optic cable and digital cable - Allows for expanded offerings such as additional premium, pay-per-view, video-on-demand and audio music channels PREMIUM CABLE SERVICES → A tier of channels that subscribers can order at an additional monthly fee over their basic cable service; these may include movie channels (pay-per-view and video-on-demand) and interactive services (which allow consumers to use their televisions to bank, shop, play games, and access the Internet) • Lure customers with promises such as no advertising, recent and classic Hollywood movies, and original movies or series • Pay-per-view → established in 1985, subscrivers could pay a designated charge to a cable company in order to view recently released movies or special one-time sporting events • Video on Demand → Introduced in the early 2000s, this service enabled customers to choose among hundreds of titles and watch their selection whenever they want in the same way as a video, pausingand fast-forwarding when desired • Services like Netflix, digital video recorders (DVRs) and video iPods are ending the era of the local video store. DBS: Cable without Wires Pg. 156 → A satellite-based service that for a monthly fee downlinks hundred of satellite channels and services; DBS began distributing video programming directly to households in 1994 • Transmits a signal directly to satellite dishes near or on customers' homes (which is advantageous to rural homes where wiring for cable isn't always pos
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