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Queen's University
Film and Media
FILM 240
Sidney Eve Matrix

FILM 240 KEY TERMS Advergames - Video, social, or mobile games created solely for promotional purposes. A form of branded entertainment. Space broker - In the days before modern advertising, individuals who purchased space in newspapers and sold it to various merchants Branded entertainment - The combined use of an audiovisual program (such as TV, radio, podcast, or videocast) and a brand to market a product or service. The purpose of this kind of program is to entertain, while at the same time provide the opportunity for brands or products to be promoted Syndicated news - In journalism, material that is sold by an organization for publication in several newspapers Storyboard - In advertising and film, a blueprint or roughly drawn comic-strip-like version of a proposed narrative/plot M-commerce - Sales conducted via mobile phone or tablet Propaganda - Information, esp. of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view Pseudo poll - Opinion poll with no research or scientific reliability, often conducted online Experiments - Media research method that uses scientific method to isolate some aspect of content, suggest a hypothesis, and manipulate variables in order to discover a particular medium's impact on users' attitudes, emotions, or behavior Sitcom - Type of comedy television series that features recurring cast and set as well as several narrative scenes; each episode establishes a situation, complicates it, develops increasing confusion among characters, then resolves it before the end of the episode Broadband - Data transmission over fiber-optic cable Trade book - Hardbound and paperback books aimed at general readers and sold at bookstores and other retail outlets Augmented reality - Virtual computer-generated imagery superimposed on a view of the surrounding environment Page views - number of times a user requests a Web page; may indicate the number of times an ad was potentially seen, or the "gross impressions" Spiral of silence - theory that links the mass media, social psychology, and the formation of public opinion; it proposes that people who find their views of controversial issues in the minority tend to keep these views silent Third screen - Computer screens on which audiences view content--supplement to the movie screen and tv set Avatar - An online identity used in role-playing games, B2B - Business-to-business; commerce transactions between businesses; sales focused on business customers, either for internal use or resale Movie palace - term used to refer to the large, elaborately decorated movie theaters built between the 1910s and the 1940s Association principle - In advertising, a persuasive technique that associates a product with some cultural value or image that has a positive connotation but may have little connection to the actual product Bandwagon effect - An advertising strategy that incorporates exaggerated claims that everyone is using a particular product, so you should, too Viral marketing - short videos or other online content that marketers hope will quickly fain widespread attention as users share it with friends online or by word of mouth,, Opt-in policy - website policy requiring site to gain explicit permission from online user before personal data is collected Paramount decision - 1948 US Supreme Court decision that ended vertical integration in the film industry by forcing the studios to divest themselves of their theaters Below the line costs (TV production) - Generally fixed costs related to the show's physical production, including allowances for non-starring cast members, technical production crew, post-production teams, locations, technical equipment, catering, insurance, etc. Focus group - Common research method in psychographic analysis in which moderators lead small-group discussions about a product or an issue, usually with six to twelve people Blaxploitation - American film genre circa 1970 targeted to urban, black audience, featuring primarily black cast. Produced across the genres from horror, SF, action, romance, to westerns. Narratives focused on themes such as social problems including white supremacy, racism, poverty, and politics Advertorial - An advertisement in the form of an editorial Bootlegging - Illegal recording and then distribution of a performance RSS - Really Simple Syndication App - Abbreviation for application, software running on a computer, a mobile device or other platform, for example, Facebook Browsers - Information-search services, such as Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer, that offer detailed organizational maps to the Internet Product life cycle - marketing theory in which products or brands follow a sequence of stages including: introduction, growth, maturity, and sales decline Buzz - Word-of-mouth marketing, where product information is communicated by consumers Cause marketing - marketing effort for social and other charitable cause Tech fast - taking a break from technology use Psychographics - In the field of marketing, demographics, opinion research, and social research in general, psychographic variables are any attributes relating to personality, values, attitudes, interests, or lifestyles. They are also called IAO variables (for Interests, Activities, and Opinions) Box Office Revenue - Revenue from ticket sales for films at movie theaters Churning - practice of customers switching to another supplier based on special discount offers Telecoms - telecommunications companies Cinematography - lighting and camera choices when making movies Gamification - the use of game play mechanics (e.g. leaderboards, badges, tokens) for non-game applications, particularly consumer-oriented web and mobile sites Partisan press - early form of journalism in which newspapers explicitly espoused support for the political party that subsided the paper Status goods - high-end, luxury and designer products Cognitive dissonance - uncomfortable feeling caused by holding conflicting ideas simultaneously; discomfort in response to a perceived discrepancy between what is already known/believed to be true, and some new information/idea/interpretation which casts doubt on those preexisting beliefs Planned obsolescence - deliberately planning or designing a product with a limited useful life, so it will become obsolete or nonfunctional after a certain period of time, requiring consumer to repurchase or upgrade Centrifugal effect - in communication studies, used to describe media use habits that have a separating effect on people Copy editor - people in magazine newspaper and book publishing who attend to specific problems in writing such as style, content and length Corporate Independents - Independent film production houses often owned by major studios, producing less mainstream, more edgy, and often award-winning movies Correlations - in survey research, associations between two variables Overshare - to offer inappropriate disclosure concerning one's personal life to others CRM - Customer Relationship Management Citizen journalism - A grassroots movement wherein activist amateurs and concerned citizens, not professional journalists, use the Internet and blogs to disseminate news and information Cultivation effect - In media research, the idea that heavy television viewing leads individuals to perceive reality in ways that are consistent with TV portrayals DBS - Direct broadcast satellite television Boutique ad agency - In advertising, small regional ad agencies that offer personalized services A&R agent - Artist & repertoire agents are music talent scouts who discover, develop, and sometimes manage talent for record labels Demographics - in market research study of audiences and consumers segmented by age, gender, occupation, region, ethnicity, education and/or income Product placement - use of a product or service within a television show or film Serial Program - radio or TV program such as soap opera that features continuing storylines from day to day or week to week, for contrast see chapter show Digital natives - Generation Y or Z ('tweens, teens, and twentysomethings) who grew up with the internet and are naturalized to online communication and digital, social, mobile communications media, devices, and services Media multitasking - simultaneously consuming many different kinds of media Rerun syndication - in television, the process whereby programs that stay in a network's lineup long enough to build up a certain number of episodes (e.g. 4) are sold, or syndicated, to hundreds of TV markets globally Ad spend - amount of money spent on advertising Digital video - production format that is replacing celluloid film and revolutionizing film-making because camera are more portable and production costs are lower e-commerce - electronic commerce or commercial activity, on the internet Episodic series - Television program with main cast of characters who reappear every week, sets and locales remain consistent, featuring new adventures each week f-commerce - sales conducted via Facebook UGM - user generated media Advertising vehicle - specific entity into which an advertisement is placed B2C - Business-to-customer; sales focused on consumers, typically for personal consumption Sketch comedy - short television comedy skits, usually segments of TV variety shows, also knows as vaudeo (blending of vaudeville and video) Taste publics - Groups of people who share similar artistic, literary, media, recreational, and intellectual interests. Infographic - a visual representation of statistical information, such as a map, chart, diagram, or time line Fear factor advertising - Advertising strategy that seeks to affect consumers' humiliation, fear, or bodily anxiety, in order to inspire defensive purchasing Flack - A derogatory term that journalists use to refer to a public relations agent Scientific method - widely used research method that studies phenomenon in systemic stages; includes identifying the research problem, reviewing existing research, developing working hypotheses, determining appropriate research design, collecting information, analyzing results to see if the hypotheses have been verified, and interpreting the implications of the study General interest magazines - Types of magazines that address a wide variety of topics and are aimed at a broad national audience Brand community - non-geographically bound community formed on the basis of attachment to a product or service, can be on and/or offline; group of consumers with a shared system of values and standards; may participate in shared media rituals plain-folks pitch - advertising appeal aims at attracting the masses by using common people to advertise a product Four P's - Product, Price, Placement and Promotion. The basic foundational elements of traditional marketing VNR - Video news release, in public relations the visual counterparts to press releases; they pitch story ideas to the TV news media by mimicking the style of a broadcast news report Chapter Show - In TV production any situation comedy or dramatic program whose narrative structure includes self-contained stories that feature a problem, a series of conflicts, and a resolution, from week to week. For contrast see serial program Foursquare - gamified geo-locational social networking site/service MMORPG - Massively multi-player online role-playing game Fringe time - In television, the time slot either immediately before the evening prime-time schedule or immediately following the local evening news or the network late-night talk shows Audience fragmentation - the process of dividing audience members into segments based on background and lifestyle in order to send them messages targeted to their specific characteristics Genre - Media categorization in which conventions regarding similar characters, scenes, structures, themes and other elements recur in combination Hypodermic needle model - An early model in mass communication research that attempted to explain media effects by arguing that the media shoot their powerful effects directly into unsuspecting or weak audiences; sometimes called the bullet theory or direct effects model Third person effect - process when a person exposed to a persuasive communication in the mass media sees it as having a greater effect on others than on himself or herself IMC - integrated marketing communications subliminal advertising - promotional messages that the consumer is not consciously aware of Content analysis - In social science mass communications research, a method involving coding and analyzing media texts and programs Indies - independent music and film production houses that work outside the industry oligopolies, often producing less mainstream cultural productions Interstitials - Advertisements that pop up in a screen window as a user attempts to access a new Web page Lifestyle segmentation - "diving consumers into groups, based on their hobbies, interests, and other aspects of their lifestyles First-run syndication - In television, the process whereby new programs are specifically produced for sale in syndication markets rather than for network television Click-thru - percentage of ad views on a Web page that resulted in an ad click Open-source software - Noncommercial software, source code shared freely and developed collectively on the Internet. e.g. Linux Longitudinal survey - Term used for research studies that are conducted over long periods of time and often rely on large government and academic survey databases Consensus narratives - cultural products and stories that become popular and command wide attention, thus providing shared cultural experiences Market position - perception of a product or an organization from the view of the consumer Long tail - the notion that selling a few of many types of items can be as profitable or even more profitable than selling many copies of a few items. the concept works especially well for online sellers such as amazon or netflix, who have large inventories of niche titles. Appointment consumption - audiences consume content at a time predetermined by the producer and distributor m-Learning - Mobile learning using smartphones, laptops, iPods,(video)cameras, cellphones, tablets, other portable digital consumer technology for educational purposes News hole - The space left over in a newspaper for news content after all the ads are placed Aspirational content - Encourages audience to continue wanting something they cannot (yet) have, because of barriers such as product price, consumer's age, or limited availability of product/service USP - unique selling proposition, a special product benefit that competitors cannot claim Newsworthiness - The often unstated criteria that journalists use to determine which events and issues should become news reports, including timeliness, proximity, conflict, prominence, human interest, consequence, usefulness, novelty, and deviance Off-network syndication - in television, the process whereby older programs that no longer run during prime time are made available for reruns to local stations, cable operators, online services, and foreign markets Oligopoly - in media economics, an organizational structure in which few firms control most of an industry's production and distribution resources Digital divide - Socioeconomic disparity between those who do and those who do not have access to digital technology and media Instant book - In the book industry, a marketing strategy that involves publishing a topical book quickly after a major event occurs Astroturf lobbying - Phony grassroots public affairs campaigns engineered by public relations firms Blind Booking - Process whereby film theaters were required to schedule films for the coming season based only on descriptions provided by the studio, with no actual preview prints available Filter bubble - term used by Eli Pariser to describe the impact of online personalization technologies. A unique information ecosystem composed of, for example Google search results and other web data filtered by your personal algorithm of interests. Can prevent exposure to new/unfamiliar information. Subsidiary rights - in the book industry, selling the rights to a book for use in other media forms, such as a mass market paperback, audiobook, or movie screenplay P2P - person-to-person or peer-to-peer Paperback book - books made with cheap paper covers introduced in North American marker in mid-1800s Cross-platform - in advertising, a campaign that involves TV and radio, online and outdoor, mobile and event programming, or some combination of promotional forms and types Payola - unethical but not always illegal practice of record promoters paying DJs or radio programmers to favor particular songs Point of purchase - the location where a transaction occurs e.g. electronic or physical cash register or checkout Upsell - prompting customers to buy upgraded products when they had intended to buy something of lower value Public sphere - those areas in social life
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