Film_240_Review.doc

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Department
Film and Media
Course
FILM 240
Professor
Sidney Eve Matrix
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1 IntroductionAge of Convergencemedia convergence merging of different kinds of mass mediacontemporary convergence is much broader exoral communication in emails and IMscross platform convergence business model that has many media holdings phoneTV under one corporate umbrellagoal better manage resources and maximize profitsthis has disadvantages for societyMass Media and Process of Communicationword media is from latin word medium meaning a material through which something is conveyedtransmittedTVnewsmoviesbooksradio are all apart of mediaLinear Model of Mass Communication 1older more enduring explanation of how media operatessenders authorsproducers send messages textsimagesads through a mass media channel newsbooks to receivers viewsconsumersin this process gatekeepers are message filtersprocess allows for feedbackproblem media messages dont usually move smoothlywords mixsenders have little control over how their messages are decoded and if they are ignored or notCultural Approach to Mass Media 2recognizes individuals have diverse meanings to messages from genderracejobsuggests the complexityof the senderreceiver processselective exposure people shaping mass media to support their own valuesbeliefs interestsStories Foundation of Mass Communicationstories of mass communication can shape a societys perspectives of eventsmedia industries are in the storytelling businessmedia stories put events in context to help us understand our daily lives and the larger worldPower of Media in Everyday Lifewith the amount of time we spend consuming mass media it plays a controversial role in societypeople see popular media as commercial and unsensationalisticmedia depictions may worsen social problemslarge portions of media budgets go to studying audiences getting their attention and taking their moneySurveying the Cultural Landscapecultural phenomenas have different appealculture has a hierarchy skyscraperculture as a process mapCulture as a Skyscrapersuperior culture at the top and inferior culture at the bottomtop is high culture balletoperaliterature and bottom is low culture rock musicsoap operas5 main concerns with low cultureinability to appreciate fine artexploiting high culturea throwaway ethicdiminished audience for high cultureinhibiting political discourse and social changebig mac theory suggests that people are so addicted to mass media that they lose their discriminating taste for finer fare and their ability to see and challenge social inequalitiesCase Study The Sleeper Curve1973 science fiction comedy called sleeper where the character awakes 200 hundred years later after being frozen sleeper curve that todays pop culture is actually making us smarter argument by Stephen Johnsonidea that popular culture is becoming more cognitively demanding and challenges our minds moreCulture as a Mapculture is an ongoing processculture in a more complex way it spreads out in more directionsrange of cultural experiences without ranking them on high or lowcomfort of Familiar Storiespulling audiences to the security of repetition and common landmarksinnovation as direction for personal growthwe like cultural adventureculture provides an impulse to explore new places and search for something differenta range of maps and messagescultural treasures contain a variety of messagescultural meanings are allover the mapchallenging the nostalgia for a better pastchallenge that society was better off before the latest developments in mass mediacall to return to the familiar good old daysCritiquing Media and Culturecultural boundaries are being tested lines between information and entertainment are blurredwe paint the diversity of mass media with the same brushto critique we need to have an understanding of the media what it produces and how it worksMedia Literacy and the Critical Processmedia literacy attaining knowledge and understanding of mass media through a critical process of description analysis interpretation evaluation and engagementwe need to strip culture of its adjectives highlowpopular and massa critique requires an understanding of the thing under scrutiny and their contemporary contextwe have to imagine culture as more complicated and have a critical stance that makes us think outside our own preferencesBenefits of a Critical Perspectiveallows us to participate in a debate about media culturecontemporary culture cant be characterized as one thing or anotherChapter 2 Media EffectsIntroductiontragic events have renewed the long standing cultural debates over the suggestive power of music visual imagery and screen violencemedia effects research attempts to understand explain and predict the effects of mass media on individuals and societymain goal is to research if their is a connection between aggressive behavior and violence in the mediacultural studies focuses on how people make meaning apprehend reality make values and order experience their use of cultural symbols examine the way status quo groups in society use media to circular their messages and sustain their interestsEarly Media Research Methodsin the 19th century media analysis was based on moral and political argumentsmore scientific approaches developed in the 1920s and 1930s4 trends that contribute to the rise of modern media researchpropaganda analysis studying how governments use propaganda to advance the warpublic opinion research citizen surveyssocial psychology studies measures the behavior and cognition of individualsmarketing research when advertisers and product companies conduct surveys on consumer buying habitsResearch on Media Effectswho says what to whom with what effect is the key question in defining the scope and problems of American communications researchex if children watch lots of cartoons cause will this influence their behavior towards their peers effectEarly Explanations of Media Effectsresearchers developed a number of theoriesmodels that explain individual behavior rather than the impact of the media on large populations theories about the powerful effects of mass mediathe hypodermicneedle model or the magic bullet theory direct effects modelone the earliest media theoriessuggests that media shoot their potent effects directly onto unsuspecting victimsthe minimal effects model or limited modelmedia alone cannot cause people to change their attitudes or behaviorspeople expose themselves to the media messages that are most familiar to them and they retain the messages that confirm the values they already havepassive media audiencethe uses and gratifications modelresponse to the minimaleffects theory to contest the notion of a passive media audienceresearchers studied the ways in which people use media to satisfy various emotional or intellectual needsthey asked why do we use mediaresearched made inventories about how people employed the media to fulfill their needsex researchers noted that some individuals used the media to see authority figures elevated or toppled to seek a sense of community and connectedness to fulfill a need for drama and stories and to confirm moral or spiritual values Conducting Media Effects Researchprivate research conducted for a businesscorporation or political campaignuncovers typically some reallife problem or needpublic research takes place in an academic and government settinginformation that is more theoretical than appliedtries to explain or predict the effects of mass mediamost media research today uses the scientific methodrelies on objectivity eliminating bias of the researchersreliability same outcome from a study done repeatedlyand validity study measures what it claims to measuremethods for studying media effects on audience have 2 forms experiments and survey researchexperimentsisolate some aspect of content suggest a hypothesis manipulate variables to discover a particular mediums impact on attitudethey are fairly good at predicting shortterm media effects under controlled conditionsdont predict how subjects will behave months or years later survey researchcollecting and measuring data taken from a group of respondentsuses larger group of people than in experimentsenable researchers to investigate populations in longterm studiescompare new studies with ones from beforecan reveal correlations between 2 variablescontent analysisstudying the effects of specific media messagessystematic method of coding and measuring media content doesnt measure the effects on the audience or explain how the messages are presented
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