Film 240 X

35 views29 pages
Published on 11 Oct 2012
School
Queen's University
Department
Film and Media
Course
FILM 240
Chapter 1-Mass Communication
Partisan press= dominant style of American journalism distinguished by opinion newspapers, which generally argued one
political point of view or pushed the plan of the particular party that subsidized the paper
Example: “Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear”- Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert, largest act of press criticism
REASON FOR INCREASE IN PARTISANSHIP: economics with so many media outlets media must target specific groups
EFFECT ON DEMOCRACY AND JOURNALISM: “elements of journalism”- public sphere has become an arena for polarized
debate, not for compromise, consensus, and solution
Culture and the Evolution of Mass Communication
- Culture= the ways in which people live and represent themselves at particular historical times. Symbols of
expression that individuals, groups and societies use to make sense of daily life and to articulate their values
- Process that delivers the values of a society through products or other meaning-making forms
- Communication= creation and use of symbol systems that convey information and meaning
- Mass media= cultural industries- the channels of communication- that produce and distribute songs, novels, TV
shows, newspapers, movies, etc. to large numbers of people
- Convergence= newer forms of technology disrupt and modify older ones
- Mass communication= process of designing cultural messages and stories and delivering them to large and diverse
audiences through media channels
- Hastened by the growth of industry and modern technology, mass communication accompanied the shift of rural
populations to urban settings and the rise of consumer culture
Oral and Written Eras in Communication
Premodern period
- 1000 B.C.E. to mid fifteenth century
- Manuscript culture served ruling class
- Working class mostly illiterate
Socrates
- 470 to 399 B.C.E
- Made arguments through public conversations and debates
- Socratic method= dialogue style of communication and inquiry
Plato
- 427 to 437 B.C.E
- Believed in superiority of oral tradition, sought to banish poets
- Foreshadows debate about contemporary culture
Print Revolution
Modern Print Era
- Invention of printing press in Germany in 15th century
- Advantages of the printing press: replaced tedious scribing, speed, affordability
- Nourished individualism and supported centralized states (nationalism- devotion to the interest or culture of one’s
nation)
Electronic and Digital Era
Electronic Era
- Industrial print-based society transformed into ‘information age’ in 1840s starting with telegraph
1. Separated communication from transformation
2. Information became a commodity
3. Coordinate commercial and military operation
4. Led to future technologies
- ‘information age’- boomed in 1950s and 1960s then gadgetry led us to digital phase
Digital Era
- Digital communication= images, texts and sounds are encoded into electronic signals that are then decoded into a
precise reproduction
- Bloggers= post commentary on personal and political-opinion-based web-sites
Media Convergence in the Digital Era
Media convergence:
1. Technological merging of content across different media channels
2. Cross platform= business model that involves consolidating various media holdings, under one corporate umbrella
(TV, cable, internet, etc.)
Mass Media and the Process of Communication
- Media= Latin plural form of medium; intervening substance in which through something is transmitted
Evolution of New Mass Media
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 29 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
1. Novelty- inventors try to solve a problem
2. Entrepreneurial- investors determine practical/marketable use for device
3. Mass medium- businesses market product to consumers
Linear Model of Mass Communication
SENDERS MASS MEDIA CHANNEL RECEIVERS
- Gate keepers: provide feedback to mass media channel
Cultural Model for Understanding Mass Communication
- Audiences actively affirm, interpret, refashion or reject the messages that flow through various media channels
- Shows lack of control senders have
- Selective exposure= people typically seek messages and produce meanings that correspond to their own cultural,
values and interests
Stories: Foundation of Media
- Narrative= media institutions are in storytelling business; STORIES MATTER
Power of Media in Everyday Life
Debates
- Plato believed staged performances glorified evil
- Immigrants go to cultural events
- Hip-hop and Elvis’ influence on young people
Examining Ethics: Article
Covering War
- Becomes ‘old news’
- Financial crisis meant lots of reporters lost their jobs
- Ethical challenges about best way to cover war
o i.e. Bush banned coffins returning to U.S.A., Obama banned abuse photos
Making Ethical Decisions
1. lay-out case
2. pinpoint issues
3. identify parties/intents
4. study ethical models
5. present strategies
6. formulate decision/policy
Surveying Cultural Landscape
Culture as a Skyscraper
- hierarchy:
o High culture= ballet, symphony, museums
o Low culture= “popular”, soap operas, video games, rock music
Five Areas of Concern for LOW
1. Inability to appreciate fine art
2. Tendency to exploit high culture
3. A throw-away ethic
4. Diminished audience for high culture
5. Dulling cultural taste buds
Culture as a Map
- On-going and complicated
- Allows us to account for individual tastes
- Comfort for familiar stories
- Attraction of ‘what’s new’
- Wide range of messages
- Challenging the ‘good old days’
Cultural Values of the Modern Period
- Modern period= industrial revolution of 19th century until mid-20th century
Features and Values
1. Efficiency- technology at work
Sleeper curve= todays popular culture is making us smarter
2. Celebrating the individual
3. Believing in a rational order
4. Rejecting tradition and embracing progress
- Progressive era= period of political and social reform that lasted roughly from the 1890s to the 1920s
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 29 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Shifting Values of the Post-modern culture
- Post-modern period= mid-20th century to present
Features and Values
1. Celebrating populism
Populism= tries to appeal to ordinary people by highlighting or even creating a conflict between ‘the people’ and
‘the elite’
2. Emphasizing diversity and recycling culture
3. Questioning science and revering nostalgia
I.e. mythical experiences like True Blood
4. Acknowledging paradox
- Incongruities
I.e. Transformers critiques modern science but depends on technology for execution
Critiquing Media and Culture
Media Literacy and the Critical Process
- Media literacy= attaining knowledge and understanding of mass media
Critical Process
1. Description: researching subject
2. Analysis: focusing on patterns
3. Interpretation: ‘so what?’
4. Evaluation: good/bad/mediocre
5. Engagement: connect critical perspective to our role as citizens
Benefits of a Critical Perspective
- Debate about media culture as a force for both democracy and consumerism
Chapter 14- Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Research
- The suggestive power of music, visual imagery and screen violence: the relationship between make-believe and
real-life imitation has drawn a great deal of attention
- Media effects research= attempts to understand, explain and predict the effects of mass media on individuals and
society
- Cultural studies= focuses on how people make meaning, apprehend reality, articulate values, and order experience
through their use of cultural symbols
Early Media Research Methods
- 1830s- U.S.A. much more print advertising then France
Four Trends: 1930-1960 to Media Research
1. Propaganda analysis= study of propagandas effectiveness in influencing and mobilizing public opinion
2. Public opinion research= citizen surveys
- Public just passively responds
- Pseudo-polls= unreliable call-in, online, person-in-the-streets polls
3. Social psychology studies= measures behaviour and cognition of individuals
I.e. Payne Fund Studies (1930s) linked movie attendance with delinquency and promiscuity. TV parental guidelines
are result of this research
4. Market research= determine consumer preferences and media use
I.e. direct-mail diaries, television meters, phone surveys, telemarketing, and internet tracking
Research of Media Effects
- “Who says what to whom with what effect?”
Early Theories of Media Effects (1930s-1970s)
1. Hypodermic-needle model= powerful media (i.e. Hitler) effecting weak audiences;
- aka Magic Bullet Theory or Direct Effects Model
- media directly shoots victims
** has been disproved
2. Minimal-effects model= mass media have limited effects on audiences, reinforcing existing behaviours and
attitudes rather than changing them
- Selective retention= exposure to the familiar, confirm pre-existing beliefs
- Media has greater impact on poor or uneducated audiences
3. Uses and gratification model= people use the media to satisfy various emotional desires or intellectual needs
** addressed why do we use media? Not what is the impact?
Conducting Media Effects Research
- Private research/proprietary research= conducted for a business, a corporation, or even a political campaign
(APPLIED).
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 29 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Partisan press= dominant style of american journalism distinguished by opinion newspapers, which generally argued one political point of view or pushed the plan of the particular party that subsidized the paper. Example: rally to restore sanity and/or fear - jon stewart and stephen colbert, largest act of press criticism. Reason for increase in partisanship: economics with so many media outlets media must target specific groups. Effect on democracy and journalism: elements of journalism - public sphere has become an arena for polarized debate, not for compromise, consensus, and solution. Culture= the ways in which people live and represent themselves at particular historical times. Symbols of expression that individuals, groups and societies use to make sense of daily life and to articulate their values. Process that delivers the values of a society through products or other meaning-making forms. Communication= creation and use of symbol systems that convey information and meaning.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.