HIST 218 Midterm

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Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering
GEOL 106
John Hanes

Lecture 1 – January 6, 2014 Background - 314AD Constantine rose to power  Constantinople ~a decade later - 1314AD Constantine’s 80 successor, still 150 years to go, “Roman Empire” - Negative connotation in ‘Byzantine’, complexity = almost devious, malicious - Constantinople = heart of the empire, ‘Queen of cities’, ‘the city’ About Byzantine - Ethnic diversity: Wide range of ethnic diversity, division, and identity characterized early Byzantium - Christian Religion: Byzantine Orthodoxy vs. Latin Catholicism - Social disparity: Substantial differences in society - Classical: Stemmed from Greco-Roman Classicalism - Imperial: Always an imperial system - Urban: Urban culture  highly developed urban centres  urban bias in history - Foreign relations: Byzantines tried to give off impressions of wealth and magnificence, even though many were poor; military powerhouse, but also very diplomatic (part of reason it existed so long) - Architecture: churches very different from Western churches - Literacy: relative high level of literacy, bureaucratic system Lecture 2 – January 9, 2014 Byzantine Empire: 330-1453AD Imperial Rome - Birth of Empire from breakdown of Republic o Rise of the ‘strong men’, need for security and control o Triumvirates and emergence of Octavian in 40s-30sBC  Octavian (representing Roman values) won in Battle of Actium against Antony (Eastern Hellenistic)  Augustus 27 BC – 14 AD • military dictatorship • Pontifex Maximus • One-man rule = new thing o Rule of the Julio-Claudians to 68 AD  Brief period of instability after Nero’s suicide  danger of one-man rule - Flavians 69-96 AD (Vespasian, Titus, Domitian) - Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian 96-138 AD o Pax romana: peak of Roman Empire - Antonines 138-193 AD o More people around the Empire start to oppose the Roman way of doing things - Severi 197-235 AD o 193-197 AD again shows danger of disruption o More areas become distinct and less dependent on central gov’t - Roman society much like today’s o Urban culture, housing, public entertainment, communications, roads o Pax romana kept by military The Crisis of the mid-3 Century (235-285 AD) - Severus Alexander assassinated in 235 AD  all hell breaks loose - Periods of radical transformation o Many things challenged o Political, military, economic, social, religious meltdown o Social anarchy o Frontiers break down - ‘crucible’ of Byzantine or Late Roman history - Circa 27 ‘official’ emperors in 50 years - 5 factors in meltdown: o Foreign invasions  Romans settling in frontier regions change how people view Rome and central authority  Rise of the Sassanid Empire in 230 AD presents new organized threat on Easter frontier o Constant internal dissension o Epidemic disease 250s – early 260s  Population decline  less people for military and agriculture o Economic collapse  Currency collapse due to inflation o Decentralization  Rome central authority lost control  people trust local authority more 284-324 Diocletian, the Tetrarchy and the rise of Constantine - Diocletian takes power by 285 AD o Personally killed his rival  became the Eastern candidate for supremacy o Defeated Western rival in battle o Leaves Maximian in charge of W, goes back to E  Maximian having trouble, losing ground to Germanic tribes and Carausius  Praetorian prefect Flavius Constantius doing pretty well - Tetrachy created in 293 AD, divided empire in four o Diocletian (E), Maximian (W) = senior Augusti o Constantius(W), Galerius (E) = junior Caesars o Relative stability until 305 AD  Diocletian and Maximian retire  Galerius becomes senior, Maximinus junior in E  Constantius dies, son Constantine becomes junior in W; Maxentius (son of Maximian) becomes senior in W o Licinius in North 308 AD - By 311 AD: o Constantine in West, Maxentius in Italy, Licinius in North/Greece, Maximinus in East - 312 AD: o Constantine decided to strike first, defeats Maxentius at Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Rome, Oct 28 o Start of Christianity in Roman world: vision before battle, in which he carried Christian insignia - 313 AD: o Licinius defeats Maximinus at Adrianople, Maximinus commits suicide in Tarsus - 313-324 AD marks relative peace while the empire remained divided - Rome was forgotten  more local power centres, shift in centre - Licinius defeated near Constantinople  Constantine takes charge by 324 AD o Beginning of ‘Byzantine Empire’, but still thought as the Roman Empire at the time Change and transformation in late Roman period Emperor - Development of autocracy, military power base o Senate became useless, emperors must have military backing - Princeps (first citizen, Augustian idea) became dominus (master) - shift to idea of emperor as divine representative - Sacralization of emperor and court: separation, rituals Administration - Power in hands of emperor and entourage  ‘party’ - Magister officiorum  right-hand man, controls access to emperor - Praetorian prefects no longer military  administrators - Multiplication of domains (imperial inflation), need taxes to run - Reorganization of provinces o Provinces, dioceses, Praetorian prefectures o Shift to local capitals away from old central Rome (peripheralization) Senate and Public Works - Senate’s official functions decline, disappear - BUT basic patronage system continues - Public works come from ‘central’ admin or from local elites who were forced to contribute Economic Collapse and Reorganization - Collapse of traditional economy - Redevelopment of money economy after Diocletian - Solidus/solidi from 309, then nomisma/nomismata - Control of prices, fixing of wages - Shift to taxation in kind Society - Increasing gov’t intervention, control - Reduction of mobility, fixing in place, job, and status - Runs from coloni (serfs) at bottom to curiales (local elites) at top - Institutionalization of guilds, militarization of society Military - Development of specialized units - Frontier forces (limitanei) - Mobile field army (comitatenses, palatine), increased used of cavalry for mobility - Increased use of less Romanized troops - Huge increase in numbers and costs Barbarian Invasion - Seen as most crucial change - Contact from late republic, esp. on Danube and Rhine frontiers - Containment, pacification, Romanization, use - Major problems from late 2 C.nd - 3 major groups o Goths 230s-260s o Alemanni in 210s, 230s, 250s-270s, penetrated deep in 270s  wall built at Rome, broke pax romana o Franks from 230s, mainly in 250s o Easy scapegoats, but not only contributor January 13, 2014 Constantine I (the Great) - In power 324 – 337 (since 306 in the West) - Enormous ego, tyrant, iron grip - Efficient propaganda machine  ‘chosen one’ by God, equal to apostles, 13 disciple - Became a saint (so did his mother Helena) - Strict rule prevented meltdown to happen again o Power consolidated in family o Dysfunctional family  Executed eldest son Crispus, accused of plotting against him and raping stepmother - Relative peace except on frontiers (tribes in West, Sassanid in East) - Consolidation and development of Diocletian’s reforms - Setting patterns for next two centuries Constantine’s rule - Absolute imperial authority - Revamped administration  run by emperor and his ‘party’ (must be Christian) - Economy in which prices and people are fixed - Revamped military, includes tribal forces and most of society Two things Constantine did that Changed the World - Founded Constantinople o Administrative city, not meant to replace Rome o More strategic location  important sea and land route o Constructed on the model of Rome, included the best parts o Not taken until 13 C. and not again till the 15 C. by the Ottomans - Established Christianity as preferred religion of Roman world o Christians seen as enemies of the natural world order (not following Roman religious practices, accused of incest, cannibalism, being antisocial… etc.) o Christians persecuted by traditionalist conservative leaders (Diocletian, Galerius, Licinius… etc.)  Paganism = great Empire, Christianity = blamed as destabilizing element o Christianity embraced with innovative ‘modernist’ leaders (Constantine)  Paganism = reason for downfall of Empire, Christianity = new hope o Persecution of Christians not carried out the West, tolerated since Constantine in power 306, and promoted since 312 o BUT Constantine has little grasp of what Christianity is, embraced and absorbed a huge range of belief  Nature of Christianity  must only have one answer  Disputes over Christianity is now political  emperor must strive for unity in church  Diverging beliefs and practices become reasons for dissent  Christianity of ruling regime becomes increasingly intolerant and extreme About Christianity th - By early 4 C., core beliefs were fairly clear but details very fuzzy; lacks clarity regarding nature of God (Trinity), of Christ, of salvation, church organization… etc. - Danger of being confused with other religions that have similar beliefs but are vitally different: ‘Gnosticism’ – numerous sects claiming to provide (different) secret knowledge leading to individual salvation - Salvation was seen as necessary  world is evil - Salvation was achievable due to divine intervener/redeemer (though debate about who that is) - Malign power seen as ruling the world  Rome = evil empire  older world needs to be resisted  revolutionary beliefs - Christianity = the answer to what has gone wrong  wide appeal - Christianity offer solutions: o Practical solutions: praying for sickness, demon eviction, food distribution o Social solutions: on the government’s side, friends and social circles o Spiritual solutions: immaterial world o Cultural solutions: talks to ordinary people who can understand Two Major Disputes - Donatism in N. Africa o Who should or can belong to the church  traitors? Those baptized by traitors? - Arianism (Arius of Alexandria) o Is the Son inferior to the Father in Trinity? o Eventually condemned at Council of Nicaea in 325  can’t have salvation if Son in inferior  doctrine of same substance (homoousios)  Trinity = equal  simplifying complex problem  more problems to come An important part of the history of Byzantium is the history of its religious disputes January 16, 2014 th The long 4-5 centuries - Constantine passed on power uncertainly to 3 young sons upon death in 337 o Constantine II (21) o Constantius II (20) o Constans (17) - A replay of Tetrachy o Constantius II vs. Constans o Constantius II ruled 351-361 - Julian 361-363, cousin of Constantius II o Intellectual, spiritual, scholar o Reluctant for power, but knew what to do with it o Family executed in 337 except brother Gallus and himself o Gallus on Eastern frontier, got too successful, executed in 354 o Hates Constantius II’s family o 355 becomes commander of the West, does very well o Leads army East, Constantius II dead before clash o Zealous religious and political conservative  wanted to go back to old model of imperial power and empire  first citizen, not master  restore power to Senate  revival of traditional (but updated) polytheism  Christianity ousted as ‘the party’ o Reminder of early instability of Christianity in Byzantine world o Killed in Persian war in 363 - Valens 364-378 (East), Valentinian 364-375 (West) o Brothers o Focused on fighting invading forces (e.g. Germania) o Both killed in battle - Theodosius I 388-395 (last Roman emperor to rule the whole empire) o Defends empire o Consolidates Christianity o Council of CP condemns Arianism, 381 o Attacks on paganism o Destruction of Serapeum (Alexandria), 391 o Defeats Eugenios and Arbogast in West in 394  last sole ruler of old Roman world  Eugenios = last senior Roman ruler to support Paganism; war = paganism vs. Christianity - Gratian 375-383 o Rose and fell with coups o West - Arcadius 395-408 o Son of Theodosius o Rulers mostly Germanic by this time o Britain abandoned, West eventually stop recognizing Roman control - Theodosius II 408-450 o 7 when came to throne o Anthemios = power behind throne until 414 o Then Pulcheria (elder sister) or Eudokia Athenaïs (wife) o Unusual peace on frontiers  Lack of conflict gives people time to dispute things  internal religious conflict over nature of Christ - Romulus Augustulus 476 o Very young, last emperor in the West o Marches insignia to Constantinople, ‘resigns’ The establishment of the Christian Empire Loss of the West - Byzantium emerges as separate, as surviving part of the old Roman Empire January 20, 2014 The Sixth Century • Thedoric (493-526) o Ostrogoth prince grew up in Byzantine as hostage o Kingdom of the Ostrogoths lasted 33 years - very long in a time of chaos o Boethius, Cassiodorus --> last antiquity Latin scholars • Anastasius I 491-518 o not a lot sources about him o monophysitism is orthodoxy o built up economy, time of relative stability in Byzantine history • Justin I 518-527 o peasant from Serbia o rose to senior general of palace guard --> emperor when Anastasius is dead • Only 3 rulers in 74 years --> peaceful context where things can be done • Justin II 565-578 o nephew of Justinian o mental health issues, mostly ruled by Queen Sophia o Italy falls to Lombards from 567 o war with Persia from 572 o Slavic invasion/settlement in Balkans o monophysite persecution from 571 • Maurice 582-602 o rose through a coup o war with Persia, Avars, Lombards o administrative reform of provinces o not a lot of resources o ousted by general Phokas • Phokas 602-610 o brutal dictator, elimination of rivals o Persians to Bosporos in 608 Justinian and Theodora • Justinian I 527-565 o brilliant nephew of Justin I o appointed by Justin I as heir (age 45) o Flavius Petrus Sabbatius = original name o might be Gothic, from Nis (Serbia), moved to Constantinople early on, as his uncle was rising in power --> knew the right people o met and fell in love with actress Theodora --> changed law so Senator can marry actress --> married in 525 o Buys peace from Persia, 531, with money stored up in stable years, 11000 pounds of gold o reforms tax system, admin o overhauls legal system and law codes from 529 o 'circus factions' blues vs. greens in Hippodrome  involved in politics and running of city  'Nika' riots of January 532 (ca. 30,000 killed) • fire burned for 5 days in Constantinople • Justinian stays in city and crushes the riot with army from Scandinavia o 'the sleepless one' o launched vast construction program across the empire  church of Hagia Sophia o Sends general Belisarios to N. Africa against Vandals 533-534  first step to re-expansion to the West  army mostly Huns and Scandinavian tribes  first person in 500 years to have triumph who is not an emperor o Italian Wars  Theodoric dies 526  Invasions 535-536  Ravenna taken 540  Goth recovery 545 under Hildebad  campaign vs Totila to 548  Totila killed 552, war over by 555 under Narses  lasted a long time, cost a lot of money and manpower  Justinian hated in Italy o the bad 540s  serious trouble with Persia, money ran out • Byzantine army destroyed in Armenia, 30,000 dead  major plague in 542 devastates population, economy • 14000 - 15000 dead a day, 2/5 of city wiped out by the end  environmental catastrophe in 530s/540s • 'nuclear winter' from volcano or meteor impact  trouble in N. Africa  Monophysite independence and threat in the East (Joseph Bardanes)  Slavic migration, settlement in Balkans • unable to integrate, Constantinople lose contact with hinterlands in the Balkans and Greece  Theodora dies 548 o later years  preoccupied with theological issues  council at Ephesus in 553, fails to settle monophysitism  return of urban rioting  Avars appear in Balkans, reach Constantinople in 559  Justinian dies November 565 • Procopius o secretary and legal advisor to general Belisarius o 3 books: Wars, Buildings, Secret History (or Anekdota)  Secret History provides unique perspective into 4 characters: Justinian, Theodora, Belisarius and wife; not meant for public eyes o Theodora o Immense formal and informal power and influence o painted as lustful whore by Procopius o steadies Justinian in Nika revolt o ousts of John of Cappadocia (powerful and feared minister)  plans of coup engineered by Theodora o influences Justinian and pope Vigilius to take a more moderate stance against monophysitism o openly supports monophysites, averts persecution o supports women's issues • Justinian: success or failure? o Success  re-expanded the empire  Laws • 529 Codex Justinianus (collection of imperial law going back to Hadrian) • 533 Digest (Tribonian) • 533 Institutes (textbook for law students) • 3 books form Corpus iuris civilis • Medieval and modern legacy in W. Europe --> basis of legal systems  Construction • 'Nika' riot allowed reconstruction of Constantinople • Antioch after earthquake and Persian sack --> rebuilt • village of origin rebuit and renamed as Justiniana Prima • Well-known Christian centres (Jerusalem, Bethleham, Antioch, Ephesus - Basilica of John) • church of Sts. Sergius and Bacch
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