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Queen's University
GPHY 104

Geography Notes Forest Dependent Communities Forest Dependent Community: • A forest dependent community is one in which the forest industry is the main employer • Canadian forest dependent communities; 2001: approx. 300, 2006: approx. 200 • 240,00 Canadians employed directly in forestry (logging mills) • Between 2003 and 2009 more that 47,000 mill workers laid off Profiles of of Canadian forest dependent communities: • dependence on forests decreasing in all regions • Unemployment is high (ranging from 10% in Ontario’s forest dependent communities) Regional Rural employment patterns: • 6.5% of rural Canada relies on forestry for employment Type of Forest employment matters: • Overall pattern for Canadian forest employment: 42% in lumber, 30% logging, 16% pulp and paper, 12% forest services • Pulp and paper jobs (and communities0 better off • regional differences in BC Factors leading to decrease in forest dependent communities: • Demand for newsprint • Strong Canadian $ making exports more expensive • Demand for lumber for US house construction drastically dropped during 2008-09 recession • Globalization and neoliberalism changes to forest regulation Neoliberalism: • Philosophy and political movement • political strategy which aims to achieve market and political goals through transfer of authority and responsibility from public sphere to private sphere • more that deregulation also “re-regulation” Forestry Example: • 1950-1990s British Columbia - Forest industry given permission to harvest wood in exchange for certain requirements - Required to process the wood in the region it was cut (appurtenancy requirement) - Required minimum annual harvest - Required to cut a mix of species • These are in place to sustain mill towns and establish new ones • Fordist – Keynesian policies to stabilize forestry economy Post 1990s British Columbia • - Removed appurtenancy requirement - Removed minimum harvest requirement - Removed utilization requirement • Protested by labour groups such as the Industrial, Wood and Allied Workers Union Objective was to free forest companies to process wood at lowest cost mills (wherever located) • • Result 50 mills closed at time when harvest levels rose by 18% Geography Notes Take aways from example in slide show: • reforms to forestry regulation in BC has made timber production more flexible and profitable for forestry companies • at the cost of a stable livelihood for many of BCs forest dependent communities • increased vulnerability of already vulnerable communities First dependent communities in the developing world: • 1.6 billion people rely on forest resources for livelihood and 1.2 billion live in extreme poverty • forest provide food, shelter, heating and a source of income Food from the forest • Wild harvested meat provides between 30-80% of protein for some communities • fruit, nuts, vegetables, mushrooms all can provide range of nutrients • Can be relied on when agricultural production is low or in seasonal low-points Fuel from Forest • More than 2 billion people rely on wood for cooking and heating • In Africa 90% of wood cut is for fuelwood • Non-domestic uses in rural industries (e.g., lumber, drying tobacco and tea etc.) • Usually gathered by women and children • Also use as charcoal (especially urban areas) Tenure in Forestry • tenure in forestry refers to ownership, tenancy and other arrangements for use of forest • most forests are publicly owned by governments (80%) without clear tenure arrangements there is very little incentive to tend to forests • Characteristics of Forest Dependent Communities: 1) Type of dependent community: settled landless poor households depending on forests for employment and collection/sale of forest products Uses of Forest and Links to Livelihood: Forests provide a range of livelihood options and employment opportunities; Pastoral populations without access to common pasture or forest grazing must purchase fodder or lease grazing land 2) Type of Dependent Community: Forest-dwelling hunters/ gatherers and shifting cultivators Uses of Forests/Links to Livelihood: Forests are the main source of livelihoods; Forests are often managed collectively; Systems can be difficult to sustain when exposed to external change (logging market pressures, etc.); Pathways out of poverty are more likely to be agriculturally based 3) Type of Dependent Community: Farm households dependent on adjacent forest resources Uses of Forest and Links to Livelihood: forests complement or supplement what can be produced on- farm or what can be supplied more efficiently from off-farm tree resources; forests can be important in meeting both subsistence and income needs; as exposure to markets increases, conflicts are likely to arise between those depending on the resource for subsistence and income 4) Type of Community: Households selling or trading forest outputs as a major source of income or employment Geography Notes Uses of Forests and Links to Livelihood: can include landless as well as farm households, and urban as well as rural; Many trades are characterized by low returns and stagnant or declining prospects; More remunerative trades often require inputs available only to the wealthier and more skilled. 5) Type of Dependent Community: Farm households using on-farm tree resources for much of their forest-related needs Uses of Forest and Links to Livelihood: Reduced access to forest resources and changing availability and allocation of land and farm labour can favour on farm management of trees; This option is only available to those with access to land they can plant without jeopardizing household food supplies; Only available for those not subject to tenure constraints militating against investment in trees. Key lessons from lecture: • Why are there fewer forest dependent communities now than in the past? What are some of the regional differences and employment patterns? Know example of regulatory changes in BC and be able to explain implications of removal of • appurtenancy requirement • Know some basic statistics about forest use in LEDCs for food and fuel • 5 types of forest dependent communities Gender and Forests Focus on 2 examples • One from Canada • One from Gambia Women in Forestry in BC: • 10% of labour employed in forestry in BC is female • More likely to be laid off • Face barriers in hiring and advancement Observations from Reed (2003) • Planning exercise consider women as spouses only • Changing nature of new jobs away from logging and towards jobs in engineering, surveillance, -monitoring provide more opportunity for women • Women employed and not employed in forestry supported forest industry, supported their male partners and in so doing contributed to their marginal position in forestry Implications of Gendered job Classification • Efforts to retrain laid off workers and to provide income support during layoffs tended to focus on directly related forest occupations (ex. logging) • Since women are under-represented in this group do not receive the same support as men Types of Stereotyping 1) Stereotyping 2) Promotion is limited 3) Not being taken seriously 4) Proving 5) Lack of Networks Hillside in Thailand example Geography Notes • Highlands: Women were responsible for household chores; Men were responsible for land and credit expenditures/men controlled finances; heavy reliance on forest for food, medicine etc. • Uplands: Men and Women shred household chores, finance responsibilities are equally shared between men and women • Lowlands: Women were responsible for household chores, men are responsible for fuelwood- finances are iffy; they use the forest for agriculture, fuelwood Other reasons why Gender matters in Forest Planning and Development (Thailand) • Workshops for processing produce targeting wrong gender • Women’s work can be seasonally busy and unable to contribute to forestry activities- longer work days certain seasons • Communicating needs for forest products (e.g. men hardwoods for furniture, women softwoods for fuel) Gambian Example • Gendered division of labour: Women tended wet lowlands and hand-watered gardens in slope areas. Men grew more profitable groundnuts and grains upland in rainy season for export • $ controlled by men Domestic food consumption by women • • Policy (1) International aid agencies promoted market garden vegetable growth, supplying fencing tools, seeds Women’s income increased; start of a female cash crop system • Women started to make more money than husbands Loaning to husbands and working more in gardens changing what it means to be a man or woman in • the Gambian society • New land for garden owned by men • Policy (2) International aid agencies and Gambian government promoted expanded planting of trees and agreements with gardeners Demonstrations, police arrests, court case which sided with women but gave control of tree growing to • landowners (men) Wood Products Cont’d Roundwood= tree stems with or without bark Sawnwood= timber that has been cut into boards or planks from logs • Industrial roundwood trade -Russia is the highest exporter -China is the highest importer • Industrial sawnwood trade -Canada is highest Sawnwood exporter in the world (volume=38,942) • Paper and paperboard trade -European dominated trade • In all aspects of wood trade, Canada is a major contributor • Primary products: one or fewer conversion/processing step (ex. logs, lumber, pulp, paper, panels, veneer) • Secondary products: two or more conversion steps (ex. l-beams, furniture) **Note: total global trade in forest products is approximately $500 billion Canadian Advantages: • Big, accessible forests • Mature industry (infrastructure on place, attractive to investment capital) • Skilled workforce • Publicly owned forests Geography Notes Canadian Disadvantages • Capital-intensive industry • High operating costs • Slow growth rates (tree&industry) • Over-reliance on USA market • Canada manufactured 62 billion per year worth of forest products - 74% of pulp and paper exports go to the US - 85% of softwood lumber went to the US • Value of lumber shipment have declined • Volume of production has gone up Newsprint, printing and writing paper products have seen a decline in the trade industry due to the • decrease in demand • paper has transitioned from being made in North America to now being manufactured in Latin America and Asia Industrial restructuring • Changing competitive landscape -shift in power from temperate to tropical regions • Emerging alternative uses of wood -Bioenergy and bioproducts • End of low-cost energy inputs • Increasingly stringent social and environmental requirements • Institutional arrangements and governance Competing substitutes • Wood based products often have other materials based counterparts • Competition with plastics, various metals and concrete Four or Five basic phases of forest use • Exploitation (1634-) • regulation (1826-) • Preservation (1885-) • Conservation & Landscape management (1900-) • Ecosystem management Key Ideas from lesson: • Which countries are the major players in terms of forest products manufacture? How does Canada stack up? (look at charts in Wood Products cont’d slideshow) • How is Canada’s ‘suite’ of forest products made up? What characteristics would you say are prevalent when you describe the types of products we make here? What are the Canadian advantages and disadvantages? • What changes have occurred in the global industry compared to 10 years ago? Environmentalism and forests (cont’d) + Midterm review Key influences on early environmental thought: -European romantics: strong belief in importance of nature -American naturalists: Thoreau finding spiritual virtue in nature; necessary to spend time in woods to know god and the good life -American and Canadian preservationists: argued for preservation and wilderness as an ethical obligation • Environmentalism: political and ethical movement that seeks to improve and protect the quality of the natural environment through changes to environmentally harmful human activities How Clayoqut changes Canadian forestry: Geography Notes • Clayoqut became a model for ecosystem based forestry and sustainable forest management, an example where a balance was found between logging and preservation that increased social welfare • The environmental movement gained power from there on Key Ideas -What are the 5 stages of forest use in Canada? -What are the influences on the Canadian environmental movement -What is the “war in the woods” and what was its impact on Canadian forestry -What are the features of the boreal forest environmental campaign? Midterm review • Midterm exam is in class next Wednesday • The film on Friday is the last material that will appear on exam Format • -10 True/False -15 Multiple choice -10-15 Short answer • Study strategies: -review the last slides of each lecture to see what to -prioritize -review the learning checks -know basic definitions -on slide show for midterm review ignore point on slide “ecosystem services cont’d” - last point on slide Question on midterm from movie • In the film “play Again” what is the experiment that society is engaged in? a) to test many hours a day teens are able to spend in front of screens b) to test how many days in a row that teens can stay away from screens c) to see if children that never visited the woods know how to play in the woods d) to see if children that play video games play in the real world e) to see what the effects of separating children from nature will be Sustainable Forest Management • 5 major agreements • Canada is involved in Montreal Process -began in 1994 -linked countries North and South America, Asia, and the Pacific Rim- boreal and temperate forests • Santigao Declaration (1995) - Forests are essential to the long-term well being of local populations, national economies, and the earth's biosphere as a whole • Criteria: category of conditions or processes by which sustainable forest management may be assessed. A criteria is characterized by a set of related indicators which are monitored periodically to asses change. • Indicator: A measurement of an aspect of the criteria. A qualitative or quantitative variable which can be measured or described and which when observed periodically demonstrates trends • 7 criteria’s -conservation of biological diversity -maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems -maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality -conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources -maintenance of forest contribution to global carbon cycles -maintenance and enhancement of long-term multiple socio-economic benefits -legal, institutional and economic framework for forest conservation and sustainable managements Geography Notes • Issues with Indicators -Scale -flexibility: how flexible is the indicator? -Data aggregation (standardized, non-standardized): ex. % of forest species at risk -Efficiency -Participation: human participation (ex. political groups, aboriginal groups etc.) -Representation -Ability to be over short time period Ecosystem Based Management • Ecosystem: a natural unit consisting of all plants, animals, and micro organisms in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical factors of the environment • Sustainability now means more than just sustaining timber yields -includes all services provided by forests -requires new (more difficult) measurements • Definition of ecosystem management:“A resource management system designed to maintain or enhance ecosystem health and productivity while producing essential commodities and other values to meet human needs and desires within the limits of socially, biologically and economically acceptable risk” • Key principles of ecosystem management: 1. Maintain viable populations of all native specie 2. Represent, within protected areas, all native ecosystem types across their natural range of variation 3. Maintain evolutionary and ecological processes: disturbance regimes, hydrological processes, nutrient cycles, etc. 4. Manage over periods of time long enough to maintain the evolutionary potential of species and ecosystems 5. Accommodate human use and occupancy within these constraints. 6. Maintain social and cultural functions, including traditional land use and aboriginal access to forest resources How are forests governed? Who controls the forests? • Forest dependent communities • forestry companies • the market • environmental groups • governments Provinces • own 77% of forest land in Canada How enforces? • in exchange for access to forest (tenure) the logging company required to submit a management pan and regular monitoring reports • plans must include what the company intends to do • fines, removal of licence, jail Forest management planning -legal and license requirement -prepared by industry/government/local citizens committee Geography Notes -10 year FMP with 5-year operating plan -extensive public and aboriginal consultation - 2 1/2 years at a cost of $1 million/plan Whats in a typical plan? - 350 pages with 6 sections - management unit description - long term management direction - planned operations - determination of sustainability - description of the monitoring program and supplementary documentation - 10 year overall plan with 2 five year operational plans - inventory of tree species - inventory of animal species - roads - silvicultural ground rules - indicators of sustainability Key Points: ... Private Woodlots and Agroforestry Sweden Privately owned forests: • half of forests are owned by individuals - “family forests” • average size 45 ha • organized in four owners associations • sodra, 51,000 members Sodra: • 700 elected representatives from membership • 4 divisions -forest services -wood products -pulp -interior wood products • quarterly sales of 650 million Canada’s privately owned forests: • woodlots/private non-industrial • 18 million ha • 7% of total accessed forests, but 14% of harvest (60% in Nova Scotia) 425,000 owners • • average 45 ha • most in the east How to promote SFM of woodlots Actions of woodlot owners associations (education, lobbying, marketing) • • laws and regulations (there are some bylaws on clear cuts, not heavily regulated) • incentive programs (free seedlings, tax benefits) Differences in regulation of crown forests and privately owned forests in Ontario Crown Forests: Geography Notes -more regulated -more stakeholders and consultation -larger areas e.g. 1 million ha -forests management/sustainability plan required Privately held forests: -smaller areas (avg. 45 ha) -No SFM plan required -production of timber is not necessarily a main goal Maple Syrup bushes • Canada produces 80% of worlds syrup • 2,600 producers in Ontario • avg. 1,200 taps Maple Syrup production and biodiversity -interviewed 22 maple syrup producers -10 were part of a farm, 2 part of campgrounds -6 harvested timber -5 operated a pancake house -asked how they managed their woodlot and compared against regional recommendations for encouraging biodiversity -ignored wildlife unless some animals chewed lines (raccoons, bear, porcupine) Conclusions of Clark and McLeman • of 20 principles for supporting diversity, 13 followed • some make businesses sense (e.g. create piles of deadwood for habitat) • few FMPs but tax credit was an incentive • contribute to sustainability Agroforestry: • half of worlds agricultural lands contain at least 10% tree cover • tropical and temperate areas • exist at plot level (e.g. nitrogen fixing tree with cereal crops) • can be combined with livestock agriculture as fodder and other uses • Agroforestry is an integrated system of rural land resource management based on combining shrubs and trees with crops and/or livestock, whose interactions generate economic, environmental and social benefits Alley cropping -planting rows of trees at wide spacing creating alleys where horticultural or other annual crops can be produced -benefits? Key Points -what parts of the world feature high
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