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GPHY 227
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1GPHY227Lecture 3 The Origins of CitiesHistorical Definition of a citySettled communityCertain threshold of peoplePeople NOT engaged directly in agricultureThis has seemed to change now as we try to regreen our industrial spacesRuled by literate eliteCivilizationFrom Latin word civilusmeaning citizen goverened by the laws of the cityTen Characteristics of Urban CivilizationPrimary o Size and density o Specialization of labour o Concentration of surplus o Classstructured society o State organizationSecondary o Monumental public works o Longdistance trade o Standardized monumental artwork o Writing o Arithmetic geometry and astronomyUrban PredictionsIn addition to social organization the environment had to be right which led to Duncan 1961 to develop these 4 preconditions 1 Populationcertain size 2 Environmenttopography climate soil 3 Technologywater management 4 Social organization and powerbecoming more complexFilm Clip from Urbanization and UrbanismCities are unique because we have a combination of many many people who have the time to be creativethis is where the relationship between cities and creativity comes fromMesopotamiathe origins of urbanism2Theories of Urban Origin more indepth on page 38 of textbook 1 Hydraulic Theoryneed for water agricultural societies 2 Economic theorytrading networks allowed for city growth 3 Military theoriesprotection origins of cities come from people coming together to protect settlement 4 Religious theoriescontrol of religious elite Jane Jacobs th Most influential urban theorist of 20 century who wrote The death and Life or Great American Cities which was a critique of the blandness of urban cities She was very antiplanning and antiestablishment however she believed strongly in the organic nature of the everyday cityHer other famous book The Economy of Cities challenged all of academia as she stated that cities came before agricultureEarly Urban HearthsMesopotamian cities4000BCEgyptian cities3300BCThe Indus ValleyHarappa cities2500BCThe Yellow River cities China20001500BCMesoamerican cities250BC MesopotamiaModern IraqTextbooks call it the birthplace of civilizationMesopotamian people were the first to do many things see lecture notesMesopotamian places are Iraqs cultural capital o Babylon o Karbala o Ur Worlds first city Possible exam question o The Arch at Ctesiphon o BaghdadThe Rape of Mesopotamia is a book which writes about the unfortunate looting of Mesopotamian artifacts from the museum in Baghdad 13 of all artifacts went missingModel of PreIndustrial City Common CharacteristicsElite live in the middle circle lower classes surround them and the outcasts largest population live on outermost circle This is very interesting because it is the structure of many large cities today3The Spread of Urbanism Greek Cities and CityStatesAncient Greek cities 800600BC Athens Sparta Megara SyracuseThe Roman Empires citybuilding has the same forms which our cities are based on today Examples of this are mass housing and intricate underground sewage system a gridlike plan public monumentsbuildings and more complex social geographyUrban Revival in Western EuropeDecline of the feudal systemEconomic and political power of the emerging urban middleclassThe rise of selfgoverning municipalitiesThe power of commerce and trade in the medieval cityThe beginnings of capitalismThe Medieval TownThe power of commerce and trade exemplified in the German city of Lubeck o Merchants gained great power under empire o These merchants formed trade relations with others in surrounding states because they were constantly at risk of attack for being so rich o The population was so rich that it was able to make very expensive public projects such as community hospitalo Citizens had great rights if they lived in the cities known as Legal Status and the rural people in the countryside did not have these rights nor the statusPreconditions for the Industrial CityThe industrial revolutionInnovations in technology and socialcultural outlookTechnological innovations included new machinery and new energy sourcesSocietal and cultural innovations included the Protestant Reformation and the central concept of profitLecture 4 The Industrial CityEarly Modern UrbanismProtoIndustrializationprecursors to industrializationFilm The Growth of Towns and CitiesTowns and cities began growing very steadily in the 1800s and places such as England saw many immigrants fill their city o Many cities grew with the iron railway and steam industries o Many new cities were built based on where raw materials such as coal were so this dictated where the city would beOvercrowding in cities led to many health issues for the people within the city Many died of cholera and also became sick from being in such close quarters with animals this is terribly unhygienic
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