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GPHY 101 Study Guide - John Christian Schultz, John A. Macdonald, Manitoba Act

Course Code
GPHY 101
Anne M C Godlewska

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Rupert’s Land – Hudson’s Bay Company’s Northern and Southern dpts
- Raw materials, market for eastern goods
Metis forced the Cdn gvnt to create the Manitoba Act (1869, 1870)
Indian Act (1876)
- Encourage assimilation
- Protect Natives
Those who wanted to develop the land and get rid of the Aboriginal and BC lobbies the govt
- 1850s: scientific expeditions
- Find info on Plains people
- Descriptions of agricultural potential, coal, mineral deposits, transportation routes
Led to buying of HBC in 1863
- Negotiation b/w HBC and Canda
- Land grant compensation for low price cash
- Outraged Aboriginal residents
Rupert’s Land Acts of 1868
- Company not liable for any claims of Indians to compensation for lands required for purposes of
- Natives not consulted
HBC started looking into Metis interests after Sayer trial
Upper Cdns settling didn’t
Dr. John Christian Schultz (Canadian Party leader) encouraged divisions b/w Metis
1869 Metis of Red River decided to block the unconditional transfer of Rupert’s Land to Canada
- Louis Riel and others informed Cdn land-survey crew that they had no authority
- October: prevented lieutenant governor-designate from entering
- Seized HBC’s Fort Garry
Jan 19, 1870: meeting between Sir John A Macdonald and Red River colony
- elect 20 reps to a committee
- List of Rights was drawn up
- Provision govt also created with Riel as president (Feb 10, 1870)
- Riel dispatched three envoys to Ottawa to submit revised terms list
o Demanded Manitoba be admitted to Confederation on equal terms
o Legislature of province have full control over public lands
o Uprising participants granted amnesty
o New province include North-West Territories and everything
o Secret demand that country be divided into two populations
- List of terms rejected: population split and creation of large reserves
- Manitoba Act: entry of Manitoba as near equal member of Confederation
o Did not provided official bilingualism and educational rights
Government’s dilemma: force people from their land or consider their claims
- Right of “half-breeds” valid
- Land allocation problems: no idea how many inhabitants eligible for grant
o Census: undercount
o Adam Archibald included family heads in count act violation
o Gov’t allowed settlers to pre-empt land before Metis selected reserve plots
o Thought 5100 eligible
o 7027 came forward and 6034 received 240-acre parcels of land and 993 got certificates
valued the same
- Many sold land or claim to move west in pursuit of retreating buffalo herds or to re-establish
- Political problems: Riel executed annoying guy making himself a target
o Macdonald helped him flee to USA
Indian Act
- Indian reserves cannot be taken/taxed
- No provision in act to accommodate different kinds of Abor. Gov’ts
- Assimilation
o Indian had to prove literate, moral character, free of debt
o Manage allotment non-indian way for three years