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DEVS 100 Study Guide - Resource Depletion, Soft Power, Deskilling


Department
Global Development Studies
Course Code
DEVS 100
Professor
Richard Day

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Study Guide for DEVS Exam
Week 1 Introduction
Foucault ‘The Unities of Discourse’ and ‘Discursive Formations’
- We must rid ourselves of a whole mass of notions each of which, in its own way, diversifies the
theme of continuity
- A succession of dispersed events, to link them to one and the same organizing principle, to
subject theme to the exemplary power of life
- Discourse analysis
- Linked systems of subjects, objects, signifiers, and patterns of regularity
- Out of these systems emerge many TRUTHS
- There is always resistance
- Must remember there are many different truths and we must hear them all out
Collins ‘Excerpt from Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness,
and the Politics of Empowerment’
- The different discourses that affect individuals
- White females have an advantage over black females even though they both to deal with sexists
- Privilege is defined by relation to the other
- Black feminism
- Expands the focus of analysis from merely describing the similarities and differences
distinguishing these systems of oppression and focuses greater attention on how they
interconnect
- Black women do a lot of community work and have a great deal of experience and believe that
power as energy can be fostered by creative acts of resistance
- Matrix of domination
- Depending on the context, an individual may be an oppressor, a member of an oppressed group,
or simultaneously oppressor and oppressed
- The dominant order has a sense of superior and inferior
- People experience and resist oppression on three levels: the level of personal biography; the
group or community level of the cultural context created by race, class and gender and on the
third level of social institutions controlled by the dominant group: namely, schools, churches,
the media, and other formal organizations
- Oppression is filled with such contradictions because these approaches fail to recognize that a
matrix of domination contains few pure victims or oppressors. Each individual derives varying
amounts of penalty and privilege
- Empowerment involves rejecting the dimensions of knowledge, whether personal, cultural, or
institutional, that perpetuate objectification and dehumanization, African-American women and
other individuals in subordinate groups become empowered when we understand and use those
dimensions of our individual, group, and disciplinary ways of knowing that foster our humanity
as fully human subjects
Matrix of Domination
- A multidimensional sphere that adjoins all of the different aspects of the dominant order
- It compares where you stand on all the axes and it shows how far you are from the centre of the
dominant order

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- Centre of the dominant order is like a black hole. It is the dominating ideology and it influences
a majority of peoples ideas and beliefs if they do not criticize what is being said to them
- People do not recognize they are engulfed in the dominant order until they step back- like a fish
bowl
Week 2 Multiculturalism and Immigration : The Other(s)
Within
This week we will investigate the trope of Canada as The Great White North,
a formation that simultaneous holds, and holds off, a multiplicity of
problematic Others.
Baldwin ‘Introduction: Where is the Great White North? Spatializing History,
Historizing Whiteness’
Canada has created a false identity that pushes people to support them the
dominant white culture by endorsing the ‘traditional’ Canadian life style. This
forces people to uphold the Canadian ideals because going against them
would cause debate about our great country and the ‘White purity’ that is it.
- Great white north is an enduring Canadian myth
- “White” parallels a double movement in our social and cultural history both to assert the
dominance of whiteness as a cultural norm and to build a sense of national identity closely to
nature and wilderness
- Canada is the only substantial country in the world with no cultural linguistic or tribal
homogeneity, not any distinct revolutionary, ideological, or geopolitical tradition to give it an
organizing principle
- Multiple memories rather than a monolithic collective memory
- Canadian diversity was born out of the struggle with Britain to contain all 13 colonies
- Glenn Gould is an iconic Canadian arts advocate that has helped construct the Great White
North
- Non-whites and Indigenous peoples have been excluded from a national identity norm from
one degree or another
- Physical “north” is a mutating landscape whose horizons seem forever in retreat. It’s meaning
has shifted overtime significantly.
- “Great White North” refers to a stolid and timeless terms to the snowy territory north of the
Arctic Circle, spatially remote, ahistorical, pre-human, but at others, it is synonymous with the
country as a whole, its people, and the values upon which the nation was built, a creation of a
population forging a common destiny
Robertson ‘The True White North: Reflection on Being Canadian’
Believes that Multiculturalism is good, because it allows for a sense of self.
It does not endorse colonialism, but that is how we came to be. We are a
country full of rich experience and people that make up our great world.
Canada is a mishmash of everyone, who all believe the same thing, we are
proud to be Canadian.
- Goes on and contradicts himself by saying we have a great sense of togetherness and self, but
we only have a sense of not being the USA. He continuously contradicts himself. He touches
on facts, and then ignores them by making up some bullshit

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- Canada is a nation that was born out of the troubles of the United States and their fight for
freedom from Britain, and we share the tribulations of entering the New World, which includes
a ‘rich’ immigrant experience and a prolonged colonial nurturing
- As Canadians we are not Americans
- No cultural linguistic or tribal homogeneity- (Residential schools???)
- Insistence on retaining for what we now call first nations
- Shade tree of benign colonialism- colonialism was not always consenting or benign
- North- we have a sense of nature - innate and in our blood- except we are multicultural are we
not?
Kymlicka ‘The Current State of Multiculturalism in Canada’
Believes multiculturalism is a good thing because it upholds the Canadian
image as a tolerating accepting place. Multiculturalism is beneficial to
everyone because it allows Them to become more like Us.
- The article was paid for by the Canadian state
- Says supporters argue that immigration is good and it integrates immigrants... This makes
them feel more welcome in society
- People argue that ghettoization and balkanization isolate these individuals and emphasize the
differences- is that not what we want? Expression of culture? Is that not what
multiculturalism is???
- Immigrants in Canada as well as visible minorities fare better then most in western cultures
- “Native-Born Canadians”- White people- Are more likely to accept immigrants, These
immigrants have a high sense of pride, and experience the freedoms of democracy and
multiculturalism
- Children of immigrants have “better educational outcomes” and “actually out-perform
children of non-immigrant parents
- Almost complete absence of immigrant or visible minority ghettoes in Canada
- Canadians not as anti-Muslin as OWDs
- All of this is an effect of mcism as state policy
- The 35-year debate in Canada between those who argue that mcism promotes civic integration
and those who argue that it promotes ethnic isolation can now be safely be put to rest
- Maybe, but there are those who reject the terms of this debate as such
- They tend not to be state theorists i.e. they tend not to be so highly rewarded, but they still do
Multiculturalism Unveiled- Movie
Does not believe in Multiculturalism, because it really does not allow for
identity formation, it just shifts people to the western perspective of the
world. Not actually accepting.
- Shows how individuals have been integrated into one mob of people who are all following like
sheep the mind set and path that has been set up for us
Stasiulis and Bakan ‘Underdevelopment, Structural Adjustment and
Gendered Migration from the West Indies and Philippines’
Against Multiculturalism because it creates a separation of people and ideas
that are incorrect. Makes people who have a power over others to feel like
they are tolerating them.
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